Carotenoids pp 237-254 | Cite as

Carotenoids in Aquaculture: Fish and Crustaceans

  • Bjorn Bjerkeng
Part of the Carotenoids book series (CAROT, volume 4)


This Chapter deals with selected topics on the use of carotenoids for colouration in aquaculture and incudes examples from ecological studies which support our understanding of functions and actions of carotenoids and colouration in fishes and crustaceans. Animal colours may be physical or structural in origin [1], e.g. Tyndall blues and iridescent diffraction colours, or they may be due to pigments, including carotenoids (Chapter 10).


Rainbow Trout Atlantic Salmon Arctic Charr Salmonid Fish Ornamental Fish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    D. L. Fox. Animal Biochnamge and Btrucutal Calouis, 3nd ed., Univ. Calif. Bress, Berkeisy (1976).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. E. Houde, Sex, Colour, and Mate Choice in Guppies, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton NJ (1997).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. Edmunds, Malacologia, 32, 241 (1991).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    B. Lyman, A Psychology of Food, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York (1989).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    H. Kläui and J. C. Bauernfeid, in Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors, (ed. J. C. Bauernfeind), p. 47. Academic Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    F. Shahidi, Metusalach and J. A. Brown, Crit. Rev. Food Sci., 38, 1 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    C. L. Delgado, N. Wada, M. W. Rosegrant, S. Meijer and M. Ahmed, Fish to 2020: Supply and Demand in Changing Global Markets, (World Fish Center Tech. Rep. 62), Int. Food Policy Res. Inst. Washington DC and WorldFish Center, Penang, Malaysia (2003).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. Sigurgisladottir, O. Torrissen, Ø. Lie, M. Thomassen and H. Hafsteinsson, Rev. Fish. Sci., 5, 223 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    N. H. Moe, Proc. Nutr. Soc. New Zealand, 15, 16 (1990).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    T. W. Goodwin, The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Vol. 2, Animals, 2nd ed., Chapman and Hall, London (1984).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    T. Matsuno, Fish. Sci., 67, 771 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    T. Matsuno and S. Hirao, in Marine Biogenic Lipids, Fats, and Oils, Vol., 1, (ed. R. G. Ackman), p. 251, CRC Press, Boca Raton (1989).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    K. L. Simpson, T. Katayama and C. O. Chichester, in Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors, (ed. J. C. Bauernfeind), p. 463, Academic Press, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    O. J. Torrissen, R. W. hardy and K. D. Shearer, CRC Crit. Rev. Aquat. Sci., 1, 209 (1989).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    T. Storebakken and H. K. No, Aquaculture, 100, 209 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    S. P. Meyers, Pure Appl. Chem., 66, 1069 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    B. Bjerkeng, in Avances en Nutrición Acuicola V, (ed. L. E. Cruz-Suárez, D. Rique-Marie,, M. Tapia-Salazar, M. A. Olvera-Novoa and R. Civera-Cerecedo), p. 71, Univ. Autónoma Nuevo León, Nuevo León, México (2000).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    D. C. Nickell and J. R. C. Springate, in Farmed Fish Quality (ed. S. C. Kestin and P. D. Wariss), p. 58, Fishing New Books, Oxford (2001).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    N. F. Haard, in Advances in Seafood Biochemistry — Composition and Quality (ed. G. J. Flick and R. E. Martin), p. 305, Technomic Publ., Lancaster, PE (1992).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    K. Schiedt, in Carotenoids Vol. 3 Biosynthesis and Metabolism, (ed. G. Britton, S. Liaaen-Jensen and H. Pfander), p. 285, Birkhäuser, Basel (1998).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2006, FAO, Rome (2007).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    The Directorate of Fisheries, Key Figures from the Aquaculture Industry 2005, The Directorate of Fisheries, Bergen (2006).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    The Research Council of Norway, Aquaculture 2020, Transcending the Barriers— as long as ... A Foresight Analysis, The Research Council of Norway, Oslo (2005).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    Fao Fisheries Department, State of the World Aquaculture 2006, FAO Fish. Tech. Paper No. 500, FAO, Rome (2006).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    F. A. Chapman, S. A. Fitz-Coy, E. M. Thunberg and C. M. Adams, J. World Aquacult. Soc. 28, 1 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    M. Tlusty, Aquaculture, 205, 203 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    F. M. Pelicice and A. A. Agostinho, Fish. Res., 72, 109 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    C. Monteiro-Neto, F. E. D. A. Cunha, M. C. Nottingham, M. E. Araújo, I. L. Rosa and G. M. L. Barros, Biodiv. Conserv., 12 1287 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    B. J. Foss, G. Nadolski and S. F. Lockwood, Mini-Rev. Med. Chem., 6, 953 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    J. Sales and G. P. J. Janssens, Aquat. Living Resourc., 16, 533 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    R. James, K. Sampath, R. Thangarathinam and I. Vasudevan, Israel J. Aquacult., 58, 97 (2006).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    L. Gouveia, P. Rema, O. Pereira and J. Empis, Aquacult. Nutr., 9, 123 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    L. Gouveia and P. Rema, Aquacult. Nutr., 11, (2005).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    K. C. Majundar, K. Nasaruddin and K. Ravinder, Aquacult. Res., 28, 581 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    M. Garduño-Lugo, G. Muñoz-Córdova and M. A. Olvera-Novoa, Aquacult. Res., 35, 340 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    O. Puebla, E. Bermingham, F. Guichard and E. Whiteman, Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 274, 1265 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    J. A. Endler, Evol. Biol., 11, 319 (1978).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    T. Amundsen and E. Forsgren, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 13155 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    C. J. Foote, G. S. Brown and C. W. Hawryshyn, Anim. Behav., 67, 69 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    G. F. Grether, J. Hudon and D. F. Millie, Proc. Roy. Soc. B. 266, 1317 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    F. Skarstein and I. Folstad, Oikos, 76, 359 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    T. W. Pike, J. D. Blount, B. Bjerkeng, J. Lindström and N. B. Metcalfe, Proc. Roy. Soc. B, 274, 1591 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    P. A. Svensson, J. D. Blount, E. Forsgren, B. Bjerkeng and T. Amundsen, unpublished results.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    J. T. Nordeide, Aquacult. Res., 38, 1 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    S. Anderson, Proc. 10th Bienn. Conf. Int. Inst. Fish. Econ. Trade, Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (2000).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    G. Steine, F. Alfnes and M. B. Rørå, Mar. Resourc. Econ., 20, 211 (2005).Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    F. Alfnes, A. G. Guttormsen, G. Steine and K. Kolstad, Am. J. Agric. Econ., 88, 1050 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    G. Sylvia, M. T. Morrissey, T. Graham and S. Garcia, J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol., 4, 51 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    G. Sylvia, M. T. Morrissey, T. Graham and S. Garcia, J. Food Prod. Market., 3, 49 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    E. E. Prince, Trans. Am. Fish. Soc., 46, 50 (1916).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    O. Einen and G. Skrede, Aquacult. Nutr., 4, 99 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    F. M. Clydesdale, Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 33, 83 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    P. Reardon and E. W. Bushnell, Infant Behav. Developm., 11, 245 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    P. Winterhalter, in Biotechnology for Improved Foods and Flavors, (ed. G. R. Takeoka), p. 295, Am. Chem. Soc., Washington (1996).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    M. Østerlie, B. Bjerkeng, H. Karlsen and H. M. Stoirø, J. Aquat. Food Prod. Technol., 10, 65 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    B. Bjerkeng, T. Storebakken and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Aquaculture, 108, 333 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    A. Aksues, B. Gjerde and S. O. Roald, Aquaculture, 53, 7 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    E. P. Köster, Food Qual. Pref., 14, 359 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    V. P. Palace and J. Werner, Sci. Mar., 70S2, 41 (2006).Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    T. W. Goodwin, Biol. Rev. Cambr., 25, 391 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    O. J. Torrissen, in The Current Status of Fish Nutrition in Aquaculture, (ed. M. Takeda and T. Watanabe), p. 387, Tokyo University of Fish eries, Tokyo (1990).Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    R. Christiansen and O. J. Torrissen, Aquaculture, 153, 51 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    R. Christiansen, Ø. Lie and O. J. Torrissen, Aquacult. Fish Management, 25, 903 (1994).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    R. Christiansen, O. Lie and O. J. Torrissen, Aquacult. Nutr., 1, 189 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    R. Christiansen, O. Lie and O. J. Torrissen, Aquacult. Nutr., 2, 55 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    R. Christiansen, J. Glette, Ø. Lie, O. J. Torrissen and R. Waagbø, J. Fish Diseases, 18, 317 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    G. Choubert, J.-M. Blanc and H. Poisson, Aquacult. Nutr., 4, 249 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    M. R. Ahmadi, A. A. Bazyar S. Safi, T. Ytrestøyl and B. Bjerkeng, J. Appl. Ichthyol., 22, 388 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    D. M. Steven, J. Exp. Biol., 26, 295 (1949).Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    J. C. A. Craik and S. M. Harvey, J. Fish Biol., 29, 549 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    A. Pettersson and Å. Lignell, Ambio, 28, 43 (1999).Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    A. A. Bazyar Lakeh, M. R. Ahmadi, S. Safi, T. Ytrestøyl and B. Bjerkeng, unpublished results.Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    R. Ørnsrud, A. Wargelius, Ø. Sæle, K. Pittman and R. Waagbø, J. Fish Biol., 64, 399 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    C.-J. Hu, S.-M. Chen, C.-H. Pan and C.-H. Huang, Aquaculture, 253, 602 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    B. Bjerkeng, B. Hatlen and M. Jobling, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 125B, 395 (2000).Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    J. Boonjawat and J. A. Olson, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 50B, 363 (1975).Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    J. M. Lampert, J. Holzschuh, S. Hessel, W. Driever, K. Vogt and J. von Lintig, Development, 130, 2173 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    M. S. Izquierdo, H. Fernández-Palacios and A. G. J. Tacon, Aquaculture, 197, 25 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    T. Watanabe and R. Vassallo-Agius, Aquaculture, 227, 35 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    V. Verakunpiriya, K. Mushiake, K. Kawano and T. Watanabe, Fish. Sci., 63, 816 (1997).Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    R. V. Agius, T. Watanabe, S. Satoh, V. Kiron, H. Imaizumi, T. Yamazaki and K. Kawano, Aquacult Res., 32S, 263 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. [82]
    R. Vassallo-Agius, H. Imaizumi, T. Watanabe, T. Yamazaki, S. Satoh and V. Kiron, Fish. Sci., 67, 260 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. [83]
    M. A. Linán-Cabello, J. Paniagua and P. M. Hopkins, Aquacult. Nutr., 8, 299 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. [84]
    W. Dall, Mar. Biol., 124, 209 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. [85]
    M. P. Pangänilhen-Rühlmann, O. Millamena and Y. Chern, Aquat. Living Resoure, 11, 463 (1998).Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    M. C. Barclay, S. J. Irvin, K. C. Williams and D. M. Smith, Aquacult. Nutr., 12, 117 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    M. Østerlie, B. Bjerkeng and S. Liaen-Jensen, J. Nutr., 129, 391 (1999).Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    P. McCaffrey and U. C. Dräger, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev., 11, 233 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    B. Bjerkeng, Prog. Fish-Cult., 59, 129 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. [90]
    P. Spolaore, C. Joannis-Cassan and A. Isambert, J. Biosci. Bioeng., 101, 87 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    D. Horn and J. Rieger, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 40, 4330 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    L. G. Buttle, V. O. Crampton and P. D. Williams, Aquacult. Res., 32, 103 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    R. T. M. Baker, A.-M. Pfeiffer, F.-J. Schöner and L. Smith-Lemmon, Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 99, 97 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    A. Kiessling, R.-E. Olsen and L. Buttle, Aquacult. Nutr., 9, 253 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. [95]
    T. Storebakken, P. Foss, K. Schiedt, E. Austreng, S. Liaaen-Jensen and U. Manz, Aquaculture, 65, 279 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    D. A. White, G. I. Page, J. Swaile, A. J. Moody and S. J. Davies, Aquacult. Res., 33, 343 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. [97]
    D. A. White, A. J. Moody, R. D. Serwata, J. Bowen, C. Soutar, A. J. Young and S. J. Davies, Aquacult. Nutr., 9, 247 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. [98]
    N. Tejera, J. R. Cejas, C. Rodriguez, B. Bjerkeng, S. Jerez, A. Bolanos and A. Lorenzo, Aquaculture. 270, 218 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    T. Storebakken, M. Sorensen, B. Bjerkeng, J. Harris, P. Monahan and S. Hiu, Aquaculture, 231, 489 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    T. Storebakken, M. Sørensen, B. Bjerkeng and S. Hin, Aquaculture, 236, 391 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    B. Bjerkeng, M. Peisker, K. von Schwartzenberg, T. Ytrestøyl and T. Åsgård, Aquaculture, 269, 476 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. [102]
    E. Wathne, B. Bjerkeng, T. Storebakken, V. Vassvik and A. B. Odland, Aquaculture 159, 217 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    B. Bjerkeng, B. Hatlen and E. Wathne, Aquaculture, 180, 307 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    B. Bjerkeng, B. Hatlen and E. Wathne, Aquaculture, 189, 389 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    B. Bjerkeng, K. Hamre, B. Hatlen and E. Wathne, Aquacult. Res., 30, 637 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    E. Austreng, T. Storebakken, M. S. Thomassen, S. Refstie and Y. Thomassen, Aquaculture, 188, 65 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    J. N. Bird and G. P. Savage, Proc. Nutr. Soc. New Zealand, 15, 45 (1990).Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    G. Choubert, J.-C. G. Milicua and R. Gomez, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 108A, 1001 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    B. Bjerkeng, M. Folling, S. Lagocki, T. Storebakken, J. J. Olli and N. Alsted, Aquaculture, 157, 63 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    M. Østerlie, B. Bjerkeng and S. Liaaen-Jensen, J. Nutr., 129, 391 (1999).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    I. Gobantes, G. Choubert, M. Laurentie, J-C. G. Milicua and R. Gomez, J. Agric. Food Chem., 45, 454 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. [112]
    G. H. Aas, B. Bjerkeng, T. Storebakken and B. Ruyter, Fish Physiol. Biochem., 21, 325 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    J. B. Maltby, L. J. Albright, C. J. Kennedy and D. A. Higgs, Aquacult. Res., 34, 829 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. [114]
    P. Foss, T. Storebakken, E. Austreng and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Aquaculture, 65, 293 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    G. Choubert and T. Storebakken, Ann. Zootech., 45, 445 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. [116]
    G. I. Page and S. J. Davies, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 143A, 125 (2006).Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    B. Bjerkeng and G. M. Berge, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 127B, 423 (2000).Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    B. Bjerkeng, S. Refstie, K. T. Fjalestad, T. Storebakken, M. Rodbotten and A. Roem, Aquaculture, 157, 297 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. [119]
    T. Ytrestoyl, G. Struksnæs, K.-A. Rørvik, W. Koppe and B. Bjerkeng, Aquaculture, 261, 215 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. [120]
    K.-A-Rørvik, E. Lundberg, F. A. Jakobsen, A. A. Jakobsen, T. Ytrestøyl and B. Bjerkeng, unpublished results.Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    T. Ytreseyl, G. Strukanæs W. Koppe and B. Bjerkeng, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 142B, 445 (2003).Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    R. E. Olsen and A. Mortensen, Aquacult. Res., 28, 51 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. [123]
    R. Ginés, T. Valdimarsdottir, K. Sveinsdottir and H. Thorarensen, Food Qual. Pref., 15, 177 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. [124]
    J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy and K. S. Richards, Biology of the Integument, Vol 1, Invertebrates, Springer, Berlin (1984).Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    J. Bereiter-Hahn, A. G. Matoltsy and K. S. Richards, Biology of the Integument, Vol. 2, Vertebrates, Springer, Berlin (1986).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    A. Huberman, Aquaculture, 191, 191 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. [127]
    H. Henmi, T. Iwata, M. Hata and M. Hata, Tohoku J. Agric., Res., 37, 101 (1987).Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    H. Henmi, M. Hata and M. Hata, Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., 55, 1583 (1989).Google Scholar
  129. [129]
    H. Henmi, M. Hata and M. Hata, Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish., 56, 1821 (1990).Google Scholar
  130. [130]
    S. J. Matthews, N. W. Ross, S. P. Lall and T. A. Gill, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 144B, 206 (2006).Google Scholar
  131. [131]
    M. R. Saha, N. W. Ross, R. E. Olsen and S. P. Lall, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 144B, 488 (2006).Google Scholar
  132. [132]
    B. Bjerkeng, T. Storebakken and S. Liaaen-Jensen, Aquaculture, 108, 333 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. [133]
    S. A. Turujman, W. G. Wamer, R. R. Wie and R. H. Albert, J. Assoc. Off. Am. Chem. Int., 80, 622 (1997).Google Scholar
  134. [134]
    R. Christiansen, G. Struksnæs R. Estermann and O. J. Torrissen, Aquacult. Res., 26, 311 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. [135]
    O. I. Forsberg and A. G Guttormsen, Aquaculture, 253, 415 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. [136]
    G. Choubert, J.-P. Cravedi and M. Laurentie, Aquacult. Res., 36, 1526 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. [137]
    T. Ytresøyl and B. Bjerkeng, Aquaculture, 263, 179 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. [138]
    T. Ytrestøyl and B. Bjerkeng, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 147B, 250 (2007).Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    J. Hudon, Biotech. Adv., 12, 49 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bjorn Bjerkeng
    • 1
  1. 1.Nofima Akvaforsk-Fiskeriforskning ASSunndalsøraNorway

Personalised recommendations