Advertisement

Carotenoids pp 213-236 | Cite as

Signal Functions of Carotenoid Colouration

  • Jonathan D. Blount
  • Kevin J. McGraw
Part of the Carotenoids book series (CAROT, volume 4)

Abstract

The importance of carotenoids for natural colouration, in relation to other classes of pigments and structural colours, has been outlined in Chapter 10. But colour only has significance if it is perceived, identified and interpreted by other organisms (animals). In other words, colour is a means of communication, a signal. Now, in this Chapter, this new direction for carotenoid research, behavioural ecology, is highlighted. Various hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the signal functions of colour, and particularly of carotenoids, in plants and animals are discussed and the empirical evidence to support these hypotheses is presented.

Keywords

Signal Function Zebra Finch House Finch Carotenoid Colour Handicap Principle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    J. Maynard-Smith and D. Harper, Animal Signals, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2003).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Zahavi and A. Zahavi, The Handicap Principle, Oxford University Press, New York (1997).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    T. W. Goodwin, The Biochemistry of the Carotenoids, Vol. II, Animals Chapman and Hall, London (1984).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    H. M. Schaefer, V. Schaefer and D. J. Levey, Trends Ecol. Evol., 19, 577 (2004).Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    L. Chittka, J. Spaethe, A. Schmidt and A. Hickelsberger, in Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behavior and Floral Evolution (ed. L. Chittka and J. D. Thomson), p. 106, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. B. Harborne, Nat. Prod. Rep., 18, 361 (2001).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    H. M. Schaeffer, K. McGraw and C. Catoni, Funct. Ecol., 22, 303 (2008).Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. R. Weiss, Anim. Behav., 53, 1043 (1997).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    H. Omura and K. Honda, Oecologia, 142, 588 (2005).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    E. Melendez-Ackerman, D. R. Campbell and N. M. Waser, Ecol., 78, 2532 (1997).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    S. D. Healy and T. A. Hurly, in Cognitive Ecology of Pollination: Animal Behavior and Floral Evolution (ed. L. Chittka and J. D. Thomson), p. 127, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2001).Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    L. Chittka and N. M. Waser, Israel J. Plant Sci., 45, 169 (1997).Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    M. R. Weiss, Nature, 354, 227 (1991).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. M. Schaefer and V. Schmidt, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B (Suppl.), 271, S370 (2004).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    N. T. Wheelwright and C. H. Janson, American Naturalist, 126, 777 (1985).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    K. J. McGraw, Anim. Behav., 69, 757 (2005).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    S. Lev-Yadun, A. Dafni, M. A. Flaishman, M. Inbar, I. Izhaki, G. Katzir and G. Ne’eman, Bioessays, 26, 1126 (2004).Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    W. D. Hamilton and S. P. Brown, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 268, 1489 (2001).Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. Archetti and S. P. Brown, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond., B, 271, 1219 (2004).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. B. Hagen, I. Folstad and S. W. Jacobsen, Ecol. Lett., 6, 807 (2003).Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. B. Hagen, S. Debeausse, N. G. Yoccoz and I. Folstad, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B (Supp.), 271, S184 (2004).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    M. Archetti and S. R. Leather, Oikos, 110, 339 (2005).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    H. M. Schaefer and D. M. Wilkinson, Trends Ecol. Evol., 19, 616 (2004).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    A. R. Wallace, Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection with Some of its Applications, Macmillan Publishers, London (1889).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    D. Lack, Ecological Isolation in Birds, William Clowes and Sons Ltd., London (1971).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    R. V. Alatalo, L. Gustafsson and A. Lundberg, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 256, 113 (1994).Google Scholar
  27. [27]
    J. W. Hardy and R. W. Dickerman, Living Bird, 4, 107 (1965).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    K. J. McGraw, K. Wakamatsu, A. B. Clark and K. Yasukawa, J. Avian Biol., 35, 543 (2004).Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    M. K. McNaught and I. P. F. Owens, J. Evol. Biol., 15, 505 (2002).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    J. A. Endler, Ecol. Monographs, 63, 1 (1993).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    H. E. H. Paterson, Evolution and the Recognition Concept of Species, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1993).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    V. A. Olson and I. P. F. Owens, J. Evol. Biol., 18, 1534 (2005).Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    E. B. Poulton, The Colours of Animals: Their Meaning and Use Especially Considered in the Case of Insects, Keegan Paul, Trench, Trübner (1890).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    R. R. Baker and G. A. Parker, Phil Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 287, 63 (1979).Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    G. D. Ruxton, T. N. Sherratt and M. P. Speed, Avoiding Attack: The Evolutionary Ecology of Crypsis, Warning Signals and Mimicry, Oxford University Press, Oxford (2004).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    G. Britton, W. J. S. Lockley, G. A. Harriman and T. W. Goodwin, Nature, 266, 49 (1977).Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    N. M. Marples, P. M. Brakefield and R. J. Cowie, Ecol. Entomol., 14, 79 (1989).Google Scholar
  38. [38]
    A. L. Bezzerides, K. J. McGraw, R. S. Parker and J. Husseini Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 61, 1401 (2007).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    J. Feltwell and M. Rothschild, J. Zool., 174, 441 (1974).Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    M. Rothschild and R. Mummery, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 28, 359 (1986).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    T. Bornefeld and F.-C. Czygan, Z. Naturforsch, 30, 298 (1975).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    D. L. Fox, Animal Biochromes and Structural Colours, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1953).Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    M. Rothschild and R. Mummery, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 24, 1 (1985).Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    M. Rothschild, B. Gardiner, G. Valadon and R. Mummery, Nature, 254, 592 (1975).Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    K. Summers and M. E. Clough, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 6227 (2001).Google Scholar
  46. [46]
    H. B. Cott, Adaptive Coloration in Animals, Oxford University Press, Oxford and New York (1940)Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    J. P. Dumbacher, T. F. Spande and J. W. Daly, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 12970 (2000).Google Scholar
  48. [48]
    I. T. Van der Veen, J. Evol. Biol., 18, 992 (2005).Google Scholar
  49. [49]
    J. Hudon, G. F. Grether and D. F. Millie, Physiol. Biochem. Zool., 76, 776 (2003).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    P. J. Herring, J. Optics A — Pure Appl. Optics, 2, R29 (2000).Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    M. S. Nowel, P. M. J. Shelton and P. J. Herring, Biol. Bull., 195, 290 (1998).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    M. Andersson, Sexual Selection, Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J. (1994).Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    G. E. Hill, Proc Int. Ornithol. Congr., 22, 1654 (1999).Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    A. V. Badyaev and G. E. Hill, Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 69, 153 (2000).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    J. J. Pelkwijk and N. Tinbergen, L. Zeitschr. Tierpsychol., 1, 193 (1937).Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    J. A. Endler, Environ. Biol. Fishes, 9, 173 (1983).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    G. E. Hill, in Bird Coloration. Volume II. Function and Evolution (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 137, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    M. A. Kwiatkowski and B. K. Sullivan, Evolution, 56, 2039 (2002).Google Scholar
  59. [59]
    C. Macias-Garcia and E. Ramirez, Nature, 434, 501 (2005).Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    S. R. Pryke, S. Andersson and M. J. Lawes, Evolution, 55, 1452 (2001).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    S. A. Tarof., P. O. Dunn and L. A. Whittingham, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 272, 1121 (2005).Google Scholar
  62. [62]
    A. Kodric-Brown, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 17, 199 (1985).Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    A. E. Houde, Evolution, 41, 1 (1987).Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    G. F. Grether, Evolution, 54, 1712 (2000).Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    K. Karino and S. Shinjo, Ichthyolog. Res., 51, 316 (2004).Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    M. Milinski and T. C. M. Bakker, Nature, 344, 330 (1990).Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    G. E. Hill, Anim. Behav., 40, 563 (1990).Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    G. E. Hill, Nature, 350, 337 (1991).Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    K. Johnson, R. Dalton and N. Burley, Behav. Ecol., 4, 138 (1993).Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    J. C. Senar, J. Domenech and M. Camerino, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 57, 465 (2005).Google Scholar
  71. [71]
    J. Karubian, Evolution, 56, 1673 (2002).Google Scholar
  72. [72]
    E. C. Collias, N. E. Collias, C. H. Jacobs, F. McAlary and J. T. Fujimoto, Condor, 81, 91 (1979).Google Scholar
  73. [73]
    J. Sundberg, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 37, 275 (1995).Google Scholar
  74. [74]
    J. Sundberg and A. Dixon, Anim. Behav., 52, 113 (1996).Google Scholar
  75. [75]
    N. Burley and C. B. Coopersmith, Ethology, 76, 133 (1987).Google Scholar
  76. [76]
    J. D. Blount, N. B. Metcalfe, T. R. Birkhead and P. F. Surai, Science, 300, 125 (2003).Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    T. Amundsen, Trends Ecol. Evol., 15, 149 (2000).Google Scholar
  78. [78]
    R. E. Irwin, American Naturalist, 144, 890 (1994).Google Scholar
  79. [79]
    K. J. Burns, Evolution, 52, 1219 (1998).Google Scholar
  80. [80]
    T. Amundsen and H. Parn, in Bird Coloration, Volume II. Function and Evolution (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 280, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  81. [81]
    K. E. Muma and P. J. Weatherhead, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 25, 23 (1989).Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    T. Amundsen and E. Forsgren, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 13155 (2001).Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    G. E. Hill, Evolution, 47, 1515 (1993).Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    M. Griggio, F. Valera, A. Casas and A. Pilastro, Anim. Behav., 69, 1243 (2005).Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    S. A. Rohwer, Evolution, 29, 593 (1975).Google Scholar
  86. [86]
    J. C. Senar, in Bird Coloration, Volume II. Function and Evolution (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 87, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (2006).Google Scholar
  87. [87]
    K. J. McGraw and G. E. Hill, Behav. Ecol., 11, 520 (2000).Google Scholar
  88. [88]
    L. L. Wolfenbarger, Condor, 101, 655 (1999).Google Scholar
  89. [89]
    G. E. Hill, A Red Bird in a Brown Bag: The Function and Evolution of Colorful Plumage in the House Finch, Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. (2002).Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    M. R. Evans and K. Norris, Behav. Ecol., 7, 1 (1996).Google Scholar
  91. [91]
    S. R. Pryke, M. J. Lawes and S. Andersson, Anim. Behav., 62, 695 (2001).Google Scholar
  92. [92]
    S. R. Pryke, S. Andersson, M. J. Lawes and S. E. Piper, Behav. Ecol., 13, 662 (2002).Google Scholar
  93. [93]
    S. R. Pryke and S. Andersson, Anim. Behav., 66, 217 (2003).Google Scholar
  94. [94]
    S. R. Pryke and S. Andersson, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 53, 393 (2003).Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    C. G. Eckert and P. J. Weatherhead, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 20, 143 (1987).Google Scholar
  96. [96]
    E. Roskaft and S. Rohwer, Anim. Behav., 35, 1070 (1987).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    S. A. Rohwer and E. Roskaft, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol, 25, 39 (1989).Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    J. Dale, in Bird Coloration, Volume II. Function and Evolution (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 36, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  99. [99]
    J. Dale, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. B, 267, 2143 (2000).Google Scholar
  100. [100]
    N. Tinbergen and A. C. Perdeck, Behaviour, 3, 1 (1950).Google Scholar
  101. [101]
    R. M. Kilner, in Bird Coloration. Volume II. Function and Evolution (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 201, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    R. Kilner, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 264, 963 (1997).Google Scholar
  103. [103]
    B. E. Lyon, J. M. Eadie and L. D. Hamilton, Nature, 371, 240 (1994).Google Scholar
  104. [104]
    K. J. McGraw, in Bird Coloration. Volume I. Mechanisms and Measurements (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 354. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  105. [105]
    N. Saino, P. Ninni, S. Calza, R. Martinelli, F. De Bernardi and A. P. Møller, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 267, 57 (2000).Google Scholar
  106. [106]
    R. A. Johnstone, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 351, 329 (1996).Google Scholar
  107. [107]
    S. Andersson, S. R. Pryke, M. J. Lawes, J. Örnborg and M. Andersson, American Naturalist, 160, 683 (2002).Google Scholar
  108. [108]
    G. E. Hill, in Bird Coloration. Volume 1. Mechanisms and Measurements (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 507, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  109. [109]
    K. J. McGraw, in Bird Coloration. Volume I. Mechanisms and Measurements (ed. G. E. Hill and K. J. McGraw), p. 175, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2006).Google Scholar
  110. [110]
    H. Brockmann and O. Völker, Hoppe-Seyl. Z., 224, 193 (1934).Google Scholar
  111. [111]
    E. S. Dierenfeld and C. D. Sheppard, Zoo Biol., 15, 183 (1996).Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    J. Raila, A. Schuhmacher, J. Gropp and F. J. Schweigert, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A, 132, 513 (2002).Google Scholar
  113. [113]
    D. L. Fox and J. W. McBeth, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 34, 707 (1970).Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    G. E. Hill, J. Avian Biol., 31, 559 (2000).Google Scholar
  115. [115]
    G. Y. Ineuye, G. E. Hill, R. Stradi and R. Mentgemsris, Auk 116, 906 (2001).Google Scholar
  116. [116]
    G. F. Grether, J. Hudon and D. F. Millie, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 266, 1 (1999).Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    G. E. Hill, C. Y. Inouye and R. Montgomerie. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 269, 1119 (2002).Google Scholar
  118. [118]
    J. C. Senar and D. Escobar, Avian Sci., 2, 19 (2002).Google Scholar
  119. [119]
    G. E. Hill and R. Montgomerie, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 258, 47 (1994).Google Scholar
  120. [120]
    K. J. McGraw, G. E. Hill and R. S. Parker, Anim. Behav., 69, 653 (2005).Google Scholar
  121. [121]
    K. J. McGraw and R. S. Parker, Physiol. Behav., 87, 103 (2006).Google Scholar
  122. [122]
    T. Ohlsson, H. G. Smith, L. Råberg and D. Hasselquist, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 269, 21 (2002).Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    J. D. Blount, N. B. Metcalfe, K. E. Amold, P. F. Surai, G. L. Devevey and P. Monaghan, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 270, 1691 (2003).Google Scholar
  124. [124]
    J. K. Bletner, R. P. Mitchell and R. L. Tugwell, Poult. Sci., 45, 689 (1966).Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    A. E. Houde and A. J. Torio, Behav. Ecol., 3, 346 (1992).Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    W. R. BrawnerIII, G. E. Hill and C. A. Sunderman, Auk, 117, 952 (2000).Google Scholar
  127. [127]
    K. J. McGraw and G. E. Hill, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 267, 1525 (2000).Google Scholar
  128. [128]
    P. Horak, L. Saks, U. Karu, I. Ots, P. F. Surai and K. J. McGraw, J. Anm. Ecol., 73, 935 (2004).Google Scholar
  129. [130]
    J. K. Tyczkowski, P. B. Hamilton and M. D. Ruff, Poult. Sci., 70, 2074 (1991).Google Scholar
  130. [131]
    G. E. Hill, K. L. Farmer and M. L. Beck, J. Exp. Biol., 207, 2095 (2004).Google Scholar
  131. [132]
    D. G. C. Harper, Anim. Behav., 58, 553 (1999).Google Scholar
  132. [133]
    J. Figuerola, J. Domenech and J. C. Senar, Anim. Behav., 65, 551 (2003).Google Scholar
  133. [134]
    G. A. Lozano, Oikos, 70, 309 (1994).Google Scholar
  134. [135]
    A. P. Møller, C. Biard, J. D. Blount, D. C. Housto,, P. Ninni, N. Saino and P. F. Surai, Avian Poultry Biol. Rev., 11, 137 (2000).Google Scholar
  135. [136]
    K. J. McGraw and D. R. Ardia, American Naturalist, 162, 704 (2003).Google Scholar
  136. [137]
    B. Faivre, A. Grégoire, M. Préanlt, F. Cézilly and G. Sorci, Science, 300, 103 (2003).Google Scholar
  137. [138]
    A. Peters, K. Delhey, A. G. Denk and B. Kempenaers, American Naturalist, 164, 51 (2004).Google Scholar
  138. [139]
    K. Lindstrom and J. Lundstrom, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 48, 44 (2000).Google Scholar
  139. [140]
    G. E. Hill and K. L. Farmer, Naturwissenschaften, 92, 30 (2005).Google Scholar
  140. [141]
    R. D. Dawson and G. R. Bortolotti, Naturwissenschaften, 93, 597 (2006).Google Scholar
  141. [142]
    K. J. Navara and G. E. Hill, Behav. Ecol., 14, 909 (2003).Google Scholar
  142. [143]
    T. von Schantz, S. Bensch, M. Grahn, D. Hasselquist and H. Wittzell, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 266, 1 (1999).Google Scholar
  143. [144]
    C. Alonso-Alvarez, S. Beitrand, G. Devevey, M. Gaillard, J. Prost, B. Faivre and G. Sorci, American Naturalist, 164, 651 (2004).Google Scholar
  144. [145]
    J. D. Blount, D. C. Houston and A. P. Møller, Trends Ecol. Evol., 15, 47 (2000).Google Scholar
  145. [146]
    J. D. Blount, D. C. Houston, P. F. Surai and A. P. Møller, Proc Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 271, S79 (2004).Google Scholar
  146. [147]
    C. Biard, P. F. Surai and A. P. Møller, Oecologia, 144, 32 (2005).Google Scholar
  147. [148]
    J. D. Blount, P. F. Surai, R. G. Nager, D. C. Houston, A. P. Møller, M. L. Trewby and M. W. Kennedy, Proc Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 269, 29 (2002).Google Scholar
  148. [149]
    K. J. McGraw, E. Adkins-Regan and R. S. Parker, Naturwissenschaften, 92, 375 (2005).Google Scholar
  149. [150]
    J. D. Blount, P. F. Surai, D. C. Houston and A. P. Møller, Funct. Ecol., 16, 445 (2002).Google Scholar
  150. [151]
    R. Vassallo-Agius, H. Imaizumi, T. Watanabe, T. Yamazaki, S. Satoh and V. Kiron, Fish. Sci., 67, 260 (2001).Google Scholar
  151. [152]
    P. A. Svensson, E. Forsgren, T. Amundsen and H. Nilsson Sköld, J. Exp. Biol., 208, 4391 (2005).Google Scholar
  152. [153]
    P. A. Svensson, C. Pélabon, J. D. Blount, P. F. Surai and T. Amundsen, Funct. Ecol., 20, 689 (2006).Google Scholar
  153. [154]
    N. Saino, V. Bertacche, R. P. Ferrari, R. Martinelli, A. P. Møller and R. Stradi, Proc Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 269, 1729 (2002).Google Scholar
  154. [155]
    B. C. Sheldon, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 257, 25 (1994).Google Scholar
  155. [156]
    J. D. Blount, A. P. Møller and D. C. Houston, Ecol. Lett., 4, 393 (2001).Google Scholar
  156. [157]
    T. E. Pitcher and J. P. Evans, Can. J. Zool., 79, 1891 (2001).Google Scholar
  157. [158]
    J. P. Evans, L. Zane, S. Francescato and A. Pilastro, Nature, 421, 360 (2003).Google Scholar
  158. [159]
    A. Peters, A. G. Denk, K. Delhey and B. Kempenaers, J. Evol. Biol., 17, 1111 (2004).Google Scholar
  159. [160]
    S. U. Linville, R. Breitwisch and A. J. Schilling, Anim. Behav., 55, 119 (1998).Google Scholar
  160. [161]
    J. C. Senar, J. Figuerola and J. Pascual, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B. 269, 257 (2002).Google Scholar
  161. [162]
    M. Preault, O. Chastel, F. Cezilly and B. Faivre, Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 58, 497 (2005).Google Scholar
  162. [163]
    D. K. Price and N. T. Burley, Heredity, 71, 405 (1993).Google Scholar
  163. [164]
    R. Buchholz, M. D. Jones-Dukes, S. Hecht and A. M. Findley, J. Anim. Breed. Genet., 121, 176 (2004).Google Scholar
  164. [165]
    I. C. Cuthill, J. C. Partridge and A. T. D. Bennent, in Animal Biguain Signalliug and Rigual Beign in Animal Communication (ed. Y. Espmark, T. Amundsen and G. Rosenqvist), p. 61; Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim (2000).Google Scholar
  165. [166]
    N. K. Johnson and R. E. Jones, Wil. Bull., 105, 389 (1993).Google Scholar
  166. [167]
    J. Figuerola and J. C. Senar, Ibis, 147 797 (2005).Google Scholar
  167. [168]
    K. J. McGraw and G. E. Hill, Can. J. Zool., 82, 734 (2004).Google Scholar
  168. [169]
    L. Saks, K. McGraw and P Hörak, Funct. Ecol., 17, 555 (2003).Google Scholar
  169. [170]
    E. O. Wilson, The Diversity of Life. Penguin Books Ltd., London (2001).Google Scholar
  170. [171]
    U. Candolin, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 267, 2425 (2000).Google Scholar
  171. [172]
    A. Kodric-Brown, Amer. Zool., 38, 70 (1998).Google Scholar
  172. [173]
    D. L. Fox, J. W. McBeth and G. Mackinney, Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 36, 253 (1970).Google Scholar
  173. [174]
    W. L. Marusich and J. C. Bauernfeind, in Carotenoids as Colorants and Vitamin A Precursors (ed J. C. Bauernfeind), p. 320, New York, Academic Press (1981).Google Scholar
  174. [175]
    T. R. Birkhead, A Brand-New Bird, Basic Books, New York (2003).Google Scholar
  175. [176]
    R. Stradi, E. Pini and G. Celentano, Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, 130, 57 (2001).Google Scholar
  176. [177]
    K. J. McGraw and M. C. Nogare, Biol. Lett., 1, 38 (2005).Google Scholar
  177. [178]
    G. E. Hill, Bioscience, 45, 25 (1995).Google Scholar
  178. [179]
    C. Isaksson, J. Örnborg, E. Stephensen and S. Andersson, EcoHealth, 2, 138 (2005).Google Scholar
  179. [180]
    A. P. Møller and T. A. Mousseau, Evolution, 55, 2097 (2001).Google Scholar
  180. [181]
    S. U. Linville and R. Breitwisch, Auk, 114, 796 (1997).Google Scholar
  181. [182]
    J. G. Ewen, P. Surai, R. Stradi, A. P. Moller, B. Vittorio, R. Griffiths and D. P. Armstrong, Animal Conservation, 9, 229 (2006).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Birkhäuser Verlag Basel 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan D. Blount
    • 1
  • Kevin J. McGraw
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and Conservation School of BiosciencesUniversity of ExeterPenrynUK
  2. 2.School of Life SciencesArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations