Lelystad virus belongs to a new virus family, comprising lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus, equine arteritis virus, and simian hemorrhagic fever virus
Lelystad virus (LV) is an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus, which causes abortions and respiratory disease in pigs. The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome of LV has been determined. This sequence is 15.1 kb in length and contains a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end. Open reading frames that might encode the viral replicases (ORFs 1a and 1b), membrane-associated proteins (ORFs 2 to 6) and the nucleocapsid protein (ORF7) have been identified. Sequence comparisons have indicated that LV is distantly related to the coronaviruses and toroviruses and closely related to lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV) and equine arteritis virus (EAV). A 3′ nested set of six sub- genomic RNAs is produced in LV-infected alveolar lung macrophages. These subgenomic RNAs contain a leader sequence, which is derived from the 5′ end of the viral genome. Altogether, these data show that LV is closely related evolutionarily to LDV and EAV, both members of a recently proposed family of positive-stranded RNA viruses, the Arteriviridae.
KeywordsSubgenomic RNAs Equine Arteritis Virus Ribosomal Frameshifting Lelystad Virus Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Virus
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