The importance of antigenic variation in vaccine design

  • F. Brown
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Virology Supplementum book series (ARCHIVES SUPPL, volume 9)


It is an honor for me to give the Keynote Address at the Third International Symposium on Positive Strand RNA Viruses because I am following two major figures in positive strand RNA virus research. The Keynote Addresses at the two previous meetings were given by David Baltimore in 1986 and Paul Kaesberg in 1989. The first of these addresses was a highly detailed description of the genetics of poliovirus. The second was rather more philosophical and historical, pointing out important relationships between the animal and plant viruses coming under the general umbrella of positive strand RNA viruses, but stopping at events before 1975.


Tobacco Mosaic Virus Antigenic Variation Parent Virus Vaccine Design Viral Protein Vaccine 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Avery OT, MacLeod CM, McCarty M (1944) Studies on the chemical nature of the substance inducing transformation of pneumococcal types. Induction of transformation by a desoxyribonucleic acid fraction isolated from Pneumococcus Type III. J Exp Med 79: 137–158Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bawden FC, Pirie NW, Bernal JD, Fankuchen I (1936) Liquid crystalline substances from virus-infected plants. Nature 138: 1051–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baxt B, Vakharia V, Moore DM, Franke AJ, Morgan DO (1989) Analysis of neutralizing antigenic sites on the surface of type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus. J Virol 63: 2143–2151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beijerinck MW (1898) Uber ein contagium fluidum als Ursache der Fleckenkrankheit der Tabaksblatter. Verh K Ned Akad Wet 65: 3–21Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Borrel A (1903) Epithelioses infectieuses et epitheliomas. Ann Inst Pasteur 17: 81–118Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brown F (1993) Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cowan KM (1969) Immunochemical studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus. V. Antigenic variants of virus demonstrated by immunodiffusion analyses with 19S but not 7S antibodies. J Exp Med 129: 333–350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cowan KM, Erol N, Whitehead AP (1974) Heterogeneity of type Asia 1 foot-and- mouth disease virus and BHK 21 cells and the relationship to vaccine preparation. Bull Off Int Epiz 81: 1271–1298Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dinter Z, Philipson L, Wessten T (1959) Properties of foot–and–mouth disease virus in tissue culture. Arch Virusforsch 9: 411–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fraenkel-Conrat H, Williams RC (1955) Reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus from its inactive protein and nucleic acid components. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 41: 690–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gibbs AJ, Harrison BD, Watson DH, Wildy P (1966) What’s in a virus name? Nature 209: 450–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gierer A, Schramm G (1956) Infectivity of ribonucleic acid from tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 177: 702–703PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hershey AD, Chase M (1952) Independent functions of viral protein and nucleic acid in growth of bacteriophage. J Gen Physiol 36: 39–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Holmes FO (1948) Order virales. The filterable viruses. In: Breed RS (ed) Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, 6th edn. Ballière, Tindall and Cox, London, pp 1127–1286Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hyslop NStG (1973) Transmission of the virus of foot-and-mouth disease between animals and man. Bull World Health Organ 49:577–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ivanovski DJ (1892) Ueber die Mosaikkrankheit der Tabakspflanze. St Petersb Acad Compl Sci Bull 35: Ser 4, 3, 67Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kleid DG, Yansura D, Small B, Dowbenko D, Moore DM, Grubman MJ, Mc- Kercher PD, Morgan DO, Robertson BH, Bachrach HL (1981) Cloned viral protein vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease; responses in cattle and swine. Science 214: 1125–1129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lwoff A, Tournier P (1966) The classification of viruses. Annu Rev Microbiol 20: 45–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Martinsen JS (1972) Neutralizing activity of sera from guinea pigs inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus variants. Res Vet Sci 13: 97–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McVicar JW, Sutmoller P (1972) Three variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus, type O: cell culture characteristics and antigenic differences. Am J Vet Res 33: 1627–1633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meloen RH (1976) Localization on foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of an antigenic deficiency induced by passage in BHK cells. Arch Virol 59: 299–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Moore DM, Vakharia VN, Morgan DO (1989) Identification of virus neutralizing epitopes on naturally occurring variants of type A12 foot-and-mouth disease virus. Virus Res 14: 281–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Racaniello VR, Baltimore D (1981) Cloned poliovirus complementary DNA is infectious in mammalian cells. Science 214: 916–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rowlands DJ, Clarke BE, Carroll AR, Brown F, Nicholson BH, Bittie JL, Houghten RA, Lerner RA (1983) Chemical basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus. Nature 306: 694–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schlesinger M (1936) The Feulgen reaction of the bacteriophage substance. Nature 138: 508–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Siligardi G, Drake AF, Mascagni P, Rowlands DJ, Brown F, Gibbons WA (1991a) A CD strategy for the study of polypeptide folding/unfolding. Int J Pept Protein Res 38: 519–527PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Siligardi G, Drake AF, Mascagni P, Rowlands DJ, Brown F, Gibbons WA (1991b) Correlations between the conformations elucidated by CD spectroscopy and the antigenic properties of four peptides of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. Eur J Biochem 99: 445–451Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stanley WM (1935) Isolation of a crystalline protein possessing the properties of tobacco mosaic virus. Science 81: 644–645PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.USDA Plum Island Animal Disease CenterGreenportUSA

Personalised recommendations