Stability of attenuated poliovirus strain genotypes in the human intestinal tract
The major part of the attenuation of the live poliovirus vaccine strains of Sabin is attributable to differences from virulent strains at two or three bases. The mutations revert or are suppressed by second site mutations in vaccine recipients with varying degrees of rapidity and to varying extents, employing both point mutation and recombination. Despite the high degree of genetic variability of the virus, vaccine associated paralysis is very rare.
KeywordsVaccine Strain Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Oral Poliovaccine Post Immunisation Paralytic Poliomyelitis
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Assaad F, Cockburn WC (1982) The relation between acute persisting spinal paralysis and poliomyelitis vaccine -results of a ten-year enquiry. Bull WHO 60: 231–242Google Scholar
- 2.Cammack N, Phillips A, Dunn G, Patel V, Minor PD (1989) Intertypic genomic rearrange ments of poliovirus strains in vaccinees. Virology 167: 507–514Google Scholar
- 9.Macadam AJ, Ferguson G, Burlison J, Stone D, Skuce R, Almond JW, Minor PD (1993) Correlation of RNA structure and attenuation of Sabin vaccine strains of poliovirus in tissue culture. Virology (in press)Google Scholar
- 10.Minor PD, Schild GC (1981) Identification of the origin of poliovirus isolates. Report of World Health Organization informal meetings 1978–1980. Lancet i: 968–969Google Scholar
- 13.Minor PD, Dunn G, Evans DMA, Magrath DI, John A, Howlett J, Phillips A, Westrop G, Wareham K, Almond JW, Hogle J (1989) The temperature sensitivity of the Sabin type 3 vaccine strain of poliovirus: molecular and structural effects of a mutation in capsid protein VP3. J Gen Virol 70: 1117–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 21.Skinner MA, Racaniello VR, Dunn G, Cooper J, Minor PD, Almond JW (1989) A new model for the secondary of the 5’ non coding RNA of poliovirus is supported by biochemical and genetical data which also show that RNA secondary structure is important in neuroviiulence. J Mol Biol 207: 379–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Stanway G, Hughes PJ, Mountford RC, Reeve P, Minor PD, Schild GC, Almond JW (1984) Comparison of the complete nucleotide sequence of the genomes of the neurovirulent poliovirus P3/Leon/37 ant its attenuated Sabin vaccine derivative P3/Leon/12a,b. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81: 1539–1543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 30.WHO (1969) Evidence on the safety and efficacy of live poliomyelitis vaccines currently in use, with special reference to type 3 poliovirus. Bull WHO 40: 925–945Google Scholar
- 31.WHO (1983) Requirements for poliomyelitis vaccine (oral) (Revised 1982). Technical Report Series 687: 107–174; World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar