Intratypic differentiation of polioviruses
The eradication of wild poliovirus from man and environment is a prerequisite for global eradication of poliomyelitis. Large scale vaccination with the live, attenuated poliovirus vac cine is a cornerstone of the eradication programme, but also leads to the ubiquitous presence of vaccine-derived virus. Therefore, characterization of polioviruses isolated from man and environment as wild or vaccine-derived is of crucial importance.
Past characterization methods were mainly based on biological or antigenic differences as determined by virus replication at supra-optimal temperatures or in the presence of partially strain-specific antisera. Because of their insufficient specificity these methods have been gradually replaced by immunological methods which use highly specific, cross-absorbed antisera or monoclonal antibodies or by molecular methods, like dot hybridization, the polymerase chain reaction or restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
At present the immunological methods may have some advantages because of their well known and widely available methodology. Molecular methods however can be expected to become more important because of their ability to obtain information on relatedness between wild virus strains and therefore on possible virus reservoirs and transmission patterns.
KeywordsNeutralization Assay Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Poliovirus Type Wild Poliovirus Neutralization Index
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