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Poliovirus vaccine formulations

  • P. A. Patriarca
  • R. W. Linkins
  • R. W. Sutter

Summary

Most of the early trials of Sabin-derived, live attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) involved sequential administration of a single dose of each poliovirus type in monovalent form. Replication of each Sabin strain in the gastrointestinal tract was usually demonstrated in 90–100% of seronegative subjects at dosage levels of ≥ 105 TCID50. However, when the same dosage of each Sabin type were mixed together and administered as a trivalent preparation (TOPV), intestinal excretion and subsequent antibody production were consistently lower for types 1 (50%–70%) and 3 (55%–75%), with no apparent effect on type 2 (96%–100%). In an effect to compensate for these deficiencies, which were largely attributed to interference from type 2, “balanced” formulations were developed and tested in Canada in the early 1960s in which higher relative potencies of types 1 (106 TCID50) and 3 (105.5 [300000] TCID50) were associated with coresponding increases in seroconversion rates. Limited studies in developing countries have revealed similar findings, although antibody responses to types 1 and 3 after three doses of the currently recommended formulation of TOPV have often remained suboptional. In view of the limited resources currently available for the poliomyelitis eradication initiative and the need to maximize the efficiency of vaccine delivery by achieving higher rates of seroconversion early in life, the development of more immunogenic formulations of TOPV remains a high priority.

Keywords

Seroconversion Rate Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Poliovirus Type Monovalent Vaccine Seronegative Subject 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. A. Patriarca
    • 1
  • R. W. Linkins
    • 1
  • R. W. Sutter
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of ImmunizationCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

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