Advertisement

The Cardiovascular and Respiratory System

  • S. H. Aharinejad
  • A. Lametschwandtner

Abstract

The vascularization of the heart has been dealt with in numerous papers. This organ is without doubt of especial clinical interest, particularly if the high incidence of ischemic heart diseases is considered. From the morphological point of view, several questions have attracted the interest of researchers. The existence and topology of Thebesian vessels, for example, have been discussed for years [1–5] but general agreement was not achieved amongst the authors. Macroscopic studies of corrosion casts, angiography of coronary vessels, as well as the study of India ink injected specimens served as further methods for demonstrating the variations of coronary vessels, blood supply of the heart conductive system, and pathological changes of myocardial vasculature [6–12]. When the scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts was applied to the vasculature of the heart, some controversial questions could be cleared up [19, 20].

Keywords

Pulmonary Vein Vocal Cord Visceral Pleura Postcapillary Venule Alveolar Capillary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Langer L (1880) Die Foramina Thebesii im Herzen des Menschen. Sitzungsberichte der Math-Naturwiss. Classe der Kaiserlichen Akad der Wiss 81: 25–40Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bohning A, Jochim K, Katz LN (1933) The Thebesian vessels as a source of nourishment for the myocardium. Am J Physiol 106: 183–200Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mechanik N (1934) Das Venensystem der Herzwände. Z Anat Entwicklg 103: 813–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Unger K (1938) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Venae cordis minimae (Thebesii) des menschlichen Herzens. Z Anat Entwicklg 108: 356–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kretz J (1927) Über die Bedeutung der Venae minimae Thebesii für die Blutversorgung des Herzmuskels. Virchows Arch 266: 647–675Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hadziselimovic H, Dilberovic F, Ovcina F (1980) Blood vessels of the human heart: coronarography and dissection. Acta Anat 106: 443–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hadziselimovic H (1978) Vascularization of the conducting system in the human heart. Acta Anat 102: 105–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hadziselimovic H (1981) Age characteristics of blood vessels of the human heart. Acta Anat 109: 231–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Piek JJ, Alvarez TR, Jutzy K, Morales AR, Boucek RJ (1982) Polyacrylamide-Bismuth for postmortem coronary arteriography. Lab Invest 46: 485–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wicke L, Firbas W (1975) Beitrag über die arterielle Gefäßversorgung des Herzens. Herz-Kreisl 7: 256–262Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barger AC, Beeuwkes R (1990) Rupture of coronary vasa vasorum as a trigger of acute myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 66: 41G - 43GPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nerantzis CE, Toutouzas P, Avgoustakis D (1983) The-importance of the sinus node artery in the blood supply of the atrial myocardium. Acta Cardiol 38: 35–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ono T, Shimohara Y, Okada K, Irino S (1986) Scanning electron microscopic studies on microvascular architecture of human coronary vessels by corrosion casts: normal and focal necrosis. Scanning Electron Microsc 1: 263–270Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Anderson BG, Anderson WD (1980) Microvasculature of the canine heart demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Am J Anat 158: 217–227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lametschwandtner A, Mohl W (1984) The microcirculatory vascular bed of the dog’s heart. A scanning electron microscopy study of vascular corrosion casts. In: Mohl W, Wolner E, Glogar D (eds) The coronary sinus. Steinkopff, Darmstadt, pp 26–32Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderson BG, Anderson WD (1981) Myocardial microvasculature studied by micro-corrosion casts. Biomed Res 2 [Suppl]: 209–217Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Anderson WD, Anderson BG, Seguin RJ (1988) Microvasculature of the bear heart demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. Acta Anat 131: 305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Irino S, Ono T, Shimohara Y (1982) Microvascular architecture of the rabbit ventricular walls: A scanning electron microscopic study of corrosion casts. Scanning Electron Microsc 4: 1785–1792Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Phillips SJ, Rosenberg A, Meir-Levi D, Pappas E (1979) Visualization of the coronary microvascular bed by light and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray in the mammalian heart. Scanning Electron Microsc 3: 735–742Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Potter RF, Groom AC (1983) Capillary diameter and geometry in cardiac and skeletal muscle studied by means of corrosion casts. Microvasc Res 25: 68–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shimada T, Morita T, Oya M, Kitamura H (1990) Morphological studies of the cardiac lymphatic system. Arch Histol Cytol 53: 115–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Shimada T, Noguchi T, Takita K, Kitamura H, Nakamura M (1989) Morphology of lymphatics of the mammalian heart with special reference to the architecture and distribution of the subepicardial lymphatic system. Acta Anat 136: 16–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shimada T, Noguchi T, Kitamura H, Matsufuji Y, Campbell GR (1988) Structure and distribution of lymphatic capillaries and fenestrated blood capillaries in the conduction system of the rabbit heart. Heart Vessels 4: 123–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ichikawa S, Uchino S, Hirata Y (1989) Lymphatics of the cardiac chordae tendineae with particular consideration of their origin. Lymphology 22: 123–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miller AJ (1982) The Lymphatics of the Heart. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Esperanca-Pina JA (1989) Microvascular aspects of myocardial lymphatic vessels in the dog by scanning electron microscopy. In: Motta PM (ed) Cells and tissues. A three-dimensional approach by modern techniques in microscopy, vol 295. Liss, New York, pp 435–441Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hijiya K, Okada Y (1978) Scanning electron microscope study of the cast of the pulmonary capillary vessels in rats. J Electron Microsc 27: 49–53Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kendall MW, Eissmann E (1980) Scanning electron microscopic examination of human pulmonary capillaries using a latex replication method. Anat Rec 196: 275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ohtani O (1980) Microvasculature of the rat lung as revealed by scanning electron microscopy of corrosion casts. Scanning Electron Microsc 3: 349–356Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nelson AC (1987) Study of rat lung alveoli using corrosion casting and freeze fracture methods coupled with digital image analysis. Scanning Microsc 1: 817–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schraufnagel DE (1987) Microvascular corrosion casting of the lung. A state-of-the-art review. Scanning Microsc 1: 1733–1747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Schraufnagel DE (1989) Microvascular casting of the lung: Bronchial versus pulmonary artery filling. Scanning Microsc 3: 575–578PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Aharinejad S, Böck P, Lametschwandtner A, Firbas W (1992) Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of venous sphincters in the rat lung. Anat Rec 233: 555–568PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aharinejad S, Böck P, Lametschwandtner A, Franz P, Firbas W (1991) Sphincters in the rat pulmonary veins. Comparison of scanning and transmission electron microscopic studies. Scanning Microsc 5: 1091–1096Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schraufnagel DE, Schmid A (1988) Microvascular casting of the lung: effects of various fixation protocols. J Electron Microsc Techn 8: 185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schraufnagel DE (1990) Corrosion casting of the lung for scanning electron microscopy. In: Schraufnagel DE (ed) Electron Microscopy of the Lung. Dekker, New York-Basel, pp 257–297Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Schraufnagel DE, Mehta D, Harshbarger R, Treviranus K, Wang NS (1986) Capillary remodeling in bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Am J Pathol 125: 97–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fung YC, Sobin SS (1969) Theory of sheet flow in lung alveoli. J Appl Physiol 26: 472–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fung YC, Sobin SS (1972) Pulmonary alveolar blood flow. Circ Res 30: 451–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Guntheroth WG, Luchtel DL, Kawabori I (1982) Pulmonary microcirculation: tubules rather than sheet and post. J Appl Physiol 53: 510–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schraufnagel DE, Schmid A (1988) Microvascular casting of the lung: vascular lavage. Scanning Microsc 2: 1017–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Schraufnagel DE, Patel KR (1990) Sphincters in pulmonary veins. An anatomic study in rats. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 721–726Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Takino M, Miyake S (1936) Uber die Besonderheiten der Arteria and Vena pulmonalis bei verschiedenen Tieren, besonders beim Menschen. Acta Scholae Med Univ Imp Kioto 18: 226–245Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Aharinejad S, Franz P, Böck P, Lametschwandtner A, Breiteneder H, Firbas W (1990) Sphincterlike structures in corrosion casts. Scanning 12: 280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Weibel ER (1973) Morphological basis of alveolar capillary gas exchange. Physiol Rev 53: 419–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Weibel ER (1974) On pericytes, particularly their existence on lung capillaries. Microvasc Res 8: 218–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Weibel ER, Palade GE (1964) New cytoplasmic components in arterial endothelia. J Cell Biol 23: 101–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Rhodin JAG (1978) Microscopic anatomy of the pulmonary vascular bed in the cat lung. Microvasc Res 15: 169–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aharinejad S, Lametschwandtner A, Höltl W, Firbas W (1990) The microvascularization of the guinea pig ureter. A scanning electron microscopic investigation. Scanning Microsc 4: 957–966Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Baluk P, Gabella G (1987) Fine structure of the autonomic ganglia of the mouse pulmonary vein. J Neurocytol 16: 169–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Donald JA, Lillywhite HB (1988) Adrenergic innervation of the large arteries and veins of the semiarboreal rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. J Morphol 198: 25–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    von Hayek H (1970) The Human Lung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kay JM (1983) Pulmonary vasculature and nerves. Comparative morphologic features of the pulmonary vasculature in mammals. Am Rev Respir Dis 128: S 53—S 57Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hung KS, Loosli CG (1977) Electron-microscopic studies of the innervation of the pulmonary veins of the mouse. Acta Anat 97: 97–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Smith RB, Taylor IM (1971) Observations on the intrinsic innervation of trachea, bronchi and pulmonary vessels in the sheep. Acta Anat 80: 1–13PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moss G, Stein AA (1976) The centrineurogenic etiology of the respiratory distress syndrome: induction by isolated cerebral hypoxemia and prevention by unilateral pulmonary denervation. Am J Surg 132: 352–357PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McCormack D (1990) Endothelium-derived relaxing factors and the human pulmonary circulation. Lung 168 [Suppl 1]: 35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dinhxuan AT, Higenbottam TW, Clelland CA, Pepkezaba J, Cremona G, Butt AY, Large SR, Wells FC, Wallwork J (1991) Impairment of endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation in chronic obstructive lung disease. New Engl J Med 324: 1539–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hirata Y, Yoshimi H, Takata S, Watanabe TX, Kumagai S, Nakajima K, Sakakibara S (1988) Cellular mechanism of action by a novel vasoconstrictor endothelin in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 154: 868–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Michel RP (1982) Arteries and veins of the normal dog lung: Qualitative and quantitative structural differences. Am J Anat 164: 227–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Malik AB (1985) Mechanisms of neurogenic pulmonary edema. Circ Res 57: 1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rogers PA, Gannon BJ (1981) The vascular and microvascular anatomy of the rat uterus during the oestrus cycle. Aust J Exp Biol 59: 667–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hodde KC, Nowell JA (1980) SEM of microcorrosion casts. Scanning Electron Microsc 2: 88–106Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lametschwandtner A, Lametschwandtner U, Weiger T (1990) Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts — Techniques and applications: updated review. Scanning Microsc 4: 889–941PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Fairman RP, Morrow C, Glauser FL (1984) Methylmethacrylate induces pulmonary hypertension and increases lung vascular permeability in sheep. Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 92–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Motti EDF, Imhof HG, Garza JM, Yasargil GM (1987) Vasospastic phenomena on the luminal replica of rat brain vessels. Scanning Microsc 1: 207–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hayat MA (1981) Fixation for Electron Microscopy. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gannon BJ (1978) Vascular casting. In: Hayat MA (ed) Principles and Techniques’ of Scanning Electron Microscopy. Biological Applications, vol. 6. Van Nostrand-Reinhold, New York, pp 170–193Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Takei Y, Gao WS, Hijioka T, Savier E, Lindert KA, Lemasters JJ, Thurman RG (1991) Increase in survival of liver grafts after rinsing with warm Ringer’s solution. Transplantation 52: 225–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miserocchi G (1991) Austausch der Pleurafüssigkeit. Atemw-Lungenkrkh 17: 226–230Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Agostoni E, Piiper J (1962) Capillary pressure and distribution of vascular resistance in isolated lung. Am J Physiol 202: 1033–1036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Miller WS (1947) The Lung. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McLaughlin RF, Tyler WS, Canada RO (1961) A study of the subgross pulmonary anatomy in various mammals. Am J Anat 108: 149–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nagaishi C (1972) Functional Anatomy and Histology of the Lung. University Park Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Albertine KH, Wiener-Kronish JP, Roos PJ, Staub NC (1982) Structure, blood supply, and lymphatic vessels of the sheep’s visceral pleura. Am J Anat 165: 277–294PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Böck P, Grabenwöger M, Aharinejad S (1991) Entwicklungsgeschichte und Anatomie der Pleura. Atemw-Lungenkrkh 17: 220–225Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Aharinejad S, Lametschwandtner A, Böck P, Franz P (1991) Microvascularization of the pleura in rats and guinea pigs. Scanning Microsc 5: 1097–1103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Aharinejad S, Fuss FK, Franz P, Firbas W (1990) Arcade-like anastomoses between the posterior intercostal arteries in man. Acta Anat 137: 157–159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Albertine KH, Wiener-Kronish JP, Staub NC (1984) The structure of the parietal pleura and its relationship to pleural liquid dynamics in sheep. Anat Rec 208: 401–409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Wang NS (1988) Anatomy. In: Dail DH, Hammar SP (eds) Pulmonary pathology. Springer, New York Berlin Heidelberg London Paris Tokyo, 39 pGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Miodonski A, Kus J, Tyrankiewicz R (1980) Scanning electron microscopical study of tracheal vascularization in guinea pig. Arch Otolaryngol 106: 31–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lametschwandtner A, Staindl O, Lametschwandtner-Albrecht U, Grunt T (1983) Die Vaskularisation der zervikalen Trachea und ihre klinische Relevanz. Eine raster-elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchung an Korrosionspräparaten. Hals-NasenOhren-heilk 31: 387–394Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Laitinen A, Laitinen LA, Moss R, Widdicombe JG (1989) Organisation and structure of the tracheal and bronchial blood vessels in the dog. J Anat 165: 133–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Nakai Y, Masutani H, Moriguchi M, Matsunaga K, Sugita M (1991) Microvascular structure of the larynx. A scanning electron microscopic study of microcorrosion casts. Acta Otolaryngol [Suppl] 486: 254–263Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Chen CF, Chien CT, Fang HS, Chiu IS (1991) Effects of atrial natriuretic factor in chronic hypoxic spontaneously hypertensive rats. Hypertension 18: 355–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Amenta F, Bronzetti E, Ferrante F (1991) Nicardipine and vascular hypertrophy. Am Heart J 122: 324–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Aharinejad S, Böck P (1992) Appearance of venous sphinters in the pulmonary micro-vascular bed of normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Scanning Microsc 6: 865–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schraufnagel DE (1992) Forms of lung lymphatics: A scanning electron microscopy study of casts. Anat Rec 233: 547–554PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Karaganov YL, Gussev SA, Mironov WA, Schippel K (1982) Moderne elektronenmikroskopische Methoden zur Untersuchung von Ultrastruktur und Funktionsweise der terminalen Strombahnen. Z Mikrosk Anat Forsch 96: 995–1031PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Aharinejad
    • 1
  • A. Lametschwandtner
    • 2
  1. 1.First Department of AnatomyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Experimental ZoologyUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations