Advertisement

CCDS: Physical principles and technical considerations

  • F. Frühwald
  • D. E. Blackwell

Abstract

CCDS (color-coded Doppler sonography — also referred to as color Doppler ultrasound or CDU) is a combined ultrasound modality offering blood flow information superimposed on a gray scale picture. Areas within the image which contain flowing blood (or other moving or vibrating tissue or particles — a potential source of artifact) are assigned color-overlay information based on a number of parameters including direction of flow, mean flow velocity, and velocity variance (which can be an indicator of turbulence). Flow toward the transducer is generally encoded as red, flow away from the probe as blue. As velocity increases the assigned color becomes lighter in shade; this often referred to as “color fading” or “decreased color saturation” (Figs. 2, 3). Many CCDS instruments allow introduction of additional color (often green or orange) in areas where marked variation in velocity is encountered (Fig. 9); this can help visually “flag” regions of turbulent flow as are often encountered just distal to an area of stenosis.

Keywords

Gray Scale Color Noise Doppler Shift Frequency Color Display Doppler Data 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Atkinson P, Woodcock JP (1982) Doppler ultrasound and its use in clinical measurement. New York, Academic PressGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns PN (1987) The physical principles of Doppler and spectral analysis. JCU 15:567–590 Daigle R (1989) Quantitative aspects of color flow imaging. In: Nanda NC (ed) Textbook of color Doppler echocardiography. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 283–291Google Scholar
  3. Eden A (1990) Lecture: Doppler the man (revisited). Center for Medical Ultrasound of the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University, February 16Google Scholar
  4. Foley WD, Erickson SJ (1991) Color Doppler flow imaging. AJR 156: 3–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Gessert JM, Moore GW (1987) Color flow imaging display modes and data acquisition parameters. Echocardiography 4: 375–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gill RW, Kossoff MB, Kossoff G, Griffiths KA (1989) New class of pulsed Doppler US ambiguity at short ranges. Radiology 173: 272–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hübsch P, Hager F, Benes E (1992) Color coded Doppler sonography of the male urethra during voiding: New observations of flow in an aqueous medium and their physical foundations. Frontiers in Europ Radiol Vol 9.Google Scholar
  8. Kasai C (1989) Principles of Doppler color flow mapping. In: Nanda NC (ed) Textbook of color Doppler echocardiography. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 14–17Google Scholar
  9. Kremkau FW, Taylor KJW (1986) Artifacts in ultrasound imaging. J Ultrasound Med 5: 227–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Klewer SE, Lloyd TR, Goldberg SJ (1989) In vivo relation between cineangiographic jet width and jet width imaged by color Doppler. Am J Cardiol 64: 1399–1401PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lee R (1989) Physical principles of flow mapping in cardiology. In: Nanda NC (ed) Textbook of color Doppler echocardiography. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 18–49Google Scholar
  12. Merritt CRB (1991) Doppler US: The basics. Radiographics 11: 109–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Mitchell DG, Burns P, Needleman L (1990) Color Doppler artifact in anechoic regions. J Ultrasound Med 9: 255–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Mitchell DG, Needleman L, Bezzi M et al (1987) Femoral artery pseudoaneurysm: Diagnosis with conventional duplex and color Doppler US. Radiology 165: 687–690PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Mitchell DG (1990) Color Doppler imaging: Principles, limitations, and artifacts. Radiology 177:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Omoto R, Kasai C (1987) Physics and instrumentation of Doppler color flow mapping. Echocardiography 4: 467–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Powis RL (1983) Color flow imaging: Understanding its science and technology. J Diagn Med Sonography 4: 236–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rubin JM (1991) Color Doppler image production. AIUM Color Doppler Sonography Symposium Syllabus, February 1991, Atlanta, GeorgiaGoogle Scholar
  19. Stevenson JG (1989) Two-dimensional color Doppler estimation of the severity of atrioventricular valve regurgitation: important effects of instrument gain setting, pulse repetition frequency, and carrier frequency. J Am Soc Echocardiography 2: 1–10Google Scholar
  20. Taylor KJW, Holland S (1990) Doppler US, Part I: Basic principles, instrumentation, and pitfalls. Radiology 174: 297–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Tegeler CH, Kremkau FW, Hitchings LP (1991) Color velocity imaging: Introduction to a new ultrasound technology. J Neuroimag 1: 85–90Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Frühwald
  • D. E. Blackwell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations