L-threo-DOPS—implications for pathophysiology of parkinsonian symptoms chronically treated with L-DOPA

  • T. Kondo
Conference paper
Part of the Key Topics in Brain Research book series (KEYTOPICS)


During the course of the disease, several L-DOPA-unresponsive symptoms in parkinsonism become manifest. These symptoms, such as frozen gait, disturbance of postural adjustment and bradyphrenia, may be attributed to the abnormality of the nondopaminergic system in the brain.

L-threo-DOPS, a synthesized amino acid, is converted to norepinephrine (NE) by enzymic decarboxylation. Basic and clinical data indicate bifold actions of the substance. The substance permeates into the brain and acts as a precursor of NE not only in peripheral tissues but also in the brain, and enhances release of amines from respective nerve terminals.

The results of clinical investigations indicate that the action of the substance distributes from the reflex mechanism in the spinal cord to mental functions in the brain. Although the underlying mechanism of L-DOPA-resistant symptoms may not be simple, the effect of the substance on frozen gait of Parkinson’s disease in advanced stages suggests the importance of the role of the NE system in the disease.


Parkinsonian Patient Spinal Trigeminal Nucleus Parkinsonian Brain Delay Reaction Time Enzymic Decarboxylation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Kondo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyJuntendo University School of MedicineBunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113Japan

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