Advertisement

Improvement of the Protein Quality of Seeds by Genetic Engineering

  • Mark A. Shotwell
  • Brian A. Larkins
Part of the Plant Gene Research book series (GENE)

Abstract

Seeds provide a major source of protein in the diets of humans and livestock. Accordingly, there has long been interest in the structure, amino acid content, and genetic regulation of seed proteins. Unfortunately, the value of seeds as protein sources is lessened by their unbalanced amino acid compositions. Most seed proteins are deficient in one or more of the amino acids that are essential for humans and other monogastric animals.

Keywords

Storage Protein Seed Protein Protein Body Seed Storage Protein Codon Usage Pattern 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ampe C, Van Damme J, de Castro LAB, Sampaio MJAM, Van Montagu M, Vandekerckhove J (1986) The amino-acid sequence of the 2S sulphur-rich proteins from seeds of Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. ). Eur J Biochem 159: 597–604Google Scholar
  2. Altenbach SB, Pearson KW, Meeker G, Staraci LC, Sun SSM (1989) Enhancement of the methionine content of seed proteins by the expression of a chimeric gene encoding a methionine-rich protein in transgenic plants. Plant Mol Biol 13: 513–522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Argos P, Pederson K, Marks MD, Larkins BA (1982) A structural model for maize zein proteins. J Biol Chem 257: 9984–9990PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Argos P, Narayana SVL, Nielsen NC (1985) Structural similarity between legumin and vicilin storage proteins from legumes. EMBO J 4: 1111–1117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Badenoch-Jones J, Spencer D, Higgins TJV, Millerd A (1981) The role of glycosylation in storage-protein synthesis in developing pea seeds. Planta 153: 201–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barton KA, Thompson JF, Madison JT, Rosenthal R, Larvis NP, Beachy RN (1982) The biosynthesis and processing of high molecular weight precursors of soybean glycinin subunits. J Biol Chem 257: 6089–6095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bollini R, Vitale A, Chrispeels MJ (1983) In vivo and in vitro processing of seed reserve protein in the endoplasmic reticulum: evidence for two glycosylation steps. J Cell Biol 96: 999–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borroto K, Dure L III (1987) The globulin seed storage proteins of flowering plants are derived from two ancestral genes. Plant Mol Biol 8: 113–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bright SWJ, Shewry PR (1983) Improvement of protein quality in cereals. CRC Crit Rev Plant Sci 1: 49–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown JWS, Bliss FA, Hall TC (1981) Linkage relationships between genes controlling seed proteins in French bean. Theor Appl Genet 60: 251–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cameron-Mills V, von Wettstein D (1980) Protein body formation in the developing barley endosperm. Carlsberg Res Commun 45: 577–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Campbell WH, Gowri G (1990) Codon usage in higher plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. Plant Physiol 92: 1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Casey R, Domoney C, Ellis N (1986) Legume storage proteins and their genes. Oxford Sury Plant Mol Cell Biol 3: 1–95Google Scholar
  14. Chesnut RS, Shotwell MA, Boyer SK, Larkins BA (1989) Analysis of avenin proteins and the expression of their mRNAs in developing oat seeds. Plant Cell 1: 913–924PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chrispeels MJ, Higgins TJV, Spencer D (1982) Assembly of storage protein oligomers in the endoplasmic reticulum and processing of the polypeptides in the protein bodies of developing pea cotyledons. J Cell Biol 93: 306–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Colot V, Bartels D, Thompson R, Flavell R (1989) Molecular characterization of an active wheat LMW glutenin gene and its relation to other wheat and barley prolamin genes. Mol Gen Genet 216: 81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Davies HM, Delmer DP (1981) Two kinds of protein glycosylation in a cell-free preparation from developing cotyledons of Phaseolus vulgaris. Plant Physiol 68: 284–291Google Scholar
  18. de Barros EG, Larkins BA (1990) Purification and characterization of zein-degrading proteinases from germinating maize endosperm. Plant Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
  19. de Boer HA, Kastelein RA (1986) Biased codon usage: an exploration of its role in optimization of translation. In: Reznikoff W, Gold L (eds) Maximizing gene expression. Butterworths, Boston, pp 225–285Google Scholar
  20. Derbyshire E, Boulter D (1976) Isolation of legumin-like protein from Phaseolus aureus and Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytochemistry 15: 411–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Destéfano-Beltran L, Nagpala P, Jaeho K, Dodds JH, Jaynes JM (1991) Genetic transformation of potato to enhance nutritional value and confer disease resistance. In: Dennis ES, Llewellyn DJ (eds) Molecular approaches to crop improvements. Springer, Wien New York, pp 17–32 [Dennis ES et al (eds) Plant gene research. Basic knowledge and application]Google Scholar
  22. Dickinson CD, Hussein EHA, Nielsen NC (1989) Role of post-translational cleavage in glycinin assembly. Plant Cell 1: 459–469PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dickinson CD, Scott MP, Hussein EHA, Argos P, Nielsen NC (1990) Effect of structural modifications on the assembly of a glycinin subunit. Plant Cell 2: 403–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Domoney C, Casey R (1985) Measurement of gene number for seed storage proteins in Pisum. Nucleic Acids Res 13: 687–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Doyle JJ, Schuler MA, Godette WD, Zenger V, Beachy RN, Slightom JL (1986) The glycosylated seed storage proteins of Glycine max and Phaseolus vulgaris. J Biol Chem 261: 9228–9238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gallardo D, Reina M, Rigau J, Boronat A, Palau J (1988) Genomic organization of the 28 kDa glutelin-2 gene from maize. Plant Sci 54: 211–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gibbs PEM, Strongin KB, McPherson A (1989) Evolution of legume seed storage proteins —a domain common to legumins and vicilins is duplicated in vicilins. Mol Biol Evol 6: 614–623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Harvey BMR, Oaks A (1974) The hydrolysis of endosperm protein in Zea mays. Plant Physiol 53: 453–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Herman EM, Shannon LM, Chrispeels MJ (1986) The Golgi apparatus mediates the transport and post-translational modification of protein body proteins. In: Shannon LM, Chrispeels MJ (eds) Molecular biology of seed storage proteins and lectins. American Society of Plant Physiologists, Rockville, MD, pp 163–173Google Scholar
  30. Hoffman LM, Donaldson DD, Bookland R, Rashka K, Herman EM (1987) Synthesis and protein body deposition of maize 15-kd zein in transgenic tobacco seeds. EMBO J 6: 3213–3221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim WT, Okita TW (1988) Structure, expression, and heterogeneity of the rice seed prolamines. Plant Physiol 88: 649–655PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim WT, Franceschi VR, Krishnan HB, Okita TW (1988) Formation of wheat proteinGoogle Scholar
  33. bodies: involvement of the Golgi apparatus in gliadin transport. Planta 176: 173–182 Kirihara JA, Hunsperger JP, Mahoney WC, Messing JW (1988) Differential expression of a gene for a methionine-rich storage protein in maize. Mol Gen Genet 211: 477–484Google Scholar
  34. Kreis M, Tatham AS (1990) The prolamin storage proteins of cereal seeds: structure andevolution. Biochem J 267: 1–12Google Scholar
  35. Kreis M, Forde BG, Rahman S, Miflin BJ, Shewry PR (1985a) Molecular evolution of the seed storage proteins of barley, rye and wheat. J Mol Biol 183: 499–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kreis M, Shewry PR, Forde BG, Forde J, Miflin BJ (1985b) Structure and evolution of seed storage proteins and their genes with particular reference to those of wheat, barley and rye. Oxford Sury Plant Mol Cell Biol 2: 253–317Google Scholar
  37. Krishnan HB, Franceschi VR, Okita TW (1986) Immunochemical studies on the role of the Golgi complex in protein-body formation in rice seeds. Planta 169: 471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ladin BF, Doyle JJ, Beachy RN (1984) Molecular characterization of a deletion mutation affecting the a’-subunit of ß-conglycinin of soybean. J Mol Appl Genet 2: 372–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Larkins BA (1982) Genetic engineering of seed storage proteins. In: Kosuge T, Meredith CP, Hollaender A (eds) Genetic engineering of plants. An agricultural perspective. Plenum, New York, pp 93–118Google Scholar
  40. Larkins BA, Hurkman WJ (1978) Synthesis and deposition of zein in protein bodies of maize endosperm. Plant Physiol 62: 256–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Larkins BA, Lending CR, Wallace JC, Galili G, Kawata EE, Geetha KB, Kriz AL, Martin DM, Bracker CE (1989) Zein gene expression during maize endosperm development. In: Goldberg RB (ed) The molecular basis of plant development. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 109–120Google Scholar
  42. Lawrence MC, Suzuki E, Varghese JN, Davis PC, Van Donkelaar A, Tulloch PA, Colman PM (1990) The three-dimensional structure of the seed storage protein phaseolin at 3 A resolution. EMBO J 9: 9–15PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lending CR, Larkins BA (1989) Changes in the zein composition of protein bodies during maize endosperm development. Plant Cell 1: 1011–1023PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lending CR, Kriz AK, Larkins BA, Bracker CE (1988) Structure of maize protein bodies and immunocytochemical localization of zeins. Protoplasma 143: 51–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lycett GW, Delauney AJ, Zhao W, Gatehouse JA, Croy RRD, Boulter D (1984) Two cDNA clones coding for the legumin protein of Pisum sativum L. contain sequence repeats. Plant Mol Biol 3: 91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Marks MD, Pedersen K, Wilson DR, DiFonzo N, Larkins BL (1984) Molecular biology of the maize seed storage proteins. Curr Top Plant Biochem Physiol 3: 9–18Google Scholar
  47. Meinke DW, Chen J, Beachy RN (1981) Expression of storage-protein genes during soybean seed development. Planta 153: 130–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Moureaux T (1979) Protein breakdown and protease properties of germinating maize endosperm. Phytochemistry 18: 1113–1117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nelson OE (1969) Genetic modification of protein quality in plants. Adv Agron 21: 171–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nelson OE (1980) Genetic control of polysaccharide and storage protein synthesis in the endosperms of barley, maize, and sorghum. In: Pomeranz Y (ed) Advances in cereal science and technology. American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, pp 41–71Google Scholar
  51. Nielsen NC, Dickinson CD, Cho T-J, Thanh VH, Scallon BJ, Fischer RL, Sims TL, Drews GN, Goldberg RB (1989) Characterization of the glycinin gene family in soybean. Plant Cell 1: 313–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ohtani T, Wallace JC, Thompson GA, Galili G, Larkins BA (1990) Normal and lysine-Google Scholar
  53. containing zeins are unstable in transgenic tobacco seeds. Plant Mol Biol (in press) Okita TW, Cheesbrough V, Reeves CD (1985) Evolution and heterogeneity of the a-/ß-typeGoogle Scholar
  54. and y-type gliadin DNA sequences. J Biol Chem 260: 8203–8213Google Scholar
  55. Okita TW, Hwang YS, Hnilo J, Kim WT, Aryan AP, Larson R, Krishnan HB (1989) Structure and expression of the rice glutelin multigene family. J Biol Chem 264: 12573–12581PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Pedersen K, Argos P, Naravana SVL, Larkins BA (1986) Sequence analysis and characterization of a maize gene encoding a high-sulfur zein protein of M,. 15,000. J Biol Chem 261: 6279–6284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Plietz P, Damaschun G (1986) The structure of the 11S seed globulins from various plant species: comparative investigations by physical methods. Stud Biophys 3: 153–173Google Scholar
  58. Plietz P, Damaschun G, Müller JJ, Schlesier B (1983a) Comparison of the structure of the 7S globulin from Phaseolus vulgaris in solution with the crystal structure of 7S globulin from Canavalia ensiformis by small angle X-ray scattering. FEBS Lett 162: 43–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Plietz P, Damaschun G, Zirwer D, Gast K, Schlesier B (1983b) Structure of 7S seed globulin from Phaseolus vulgaris L. in solution. Int J Biol Macromol 5: 356–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Plietz P, Drescher B, Damaschun G (1988) Structure and evolution of the 11S globulins: conclusions from comparative evaluation of amino acids sequences and X-ray scattering data. Biochem Physiol Pflanzen 183: 199–203Google Scholar
  61. Reichelt R, Schwenke K-D, König T, Pähtz W, Wangermann G (1980) Electron microscopic studies for estimation of the quaternary structure of the 11S globulin (helianthin) from sunflower seed ( Helianthus annuus L. ). Biochem Physiol Pflanzen 175: 653–663Google Scholar
  62. Shotwell MA, Larkins BA (1989) The biochemistry and molecular biology of seed storage proteins. In: Marcus A (ed) The biochemistry of plants. A comprehensive treatise, vol 15. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 297–345Google Scholar
  63. Shotwell MA, Boyer SK, Chesnut RS, Larkins BA (1990) Analysis of seed storage protein genes of oats. J Biol Chem 265: 9652–9658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Shutov AD, Vaintraub IA (1987) Degradation of storage proteins in germinating seeds. Phytochemistry 23: 75–94Google Scholar
  65. Spencer D, Chandler PM, Higgins TJV, Inglis AS, Rubira M (1983) Sequence interrelationships of the subunits of vicilin from pea seeds. Plant Mol Biol 2: 259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sun SSM, Altenbach SB, Leung FW (1987) Properties, biosynthesis and processing of a sulfur-rich protein in Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K. ). Eur J Biochem 162: 477–483Google Scholar
  67. Talbot DR, Adang MJ, Slightom JL, Hall TC (1984) Size and organization of a multigene family encoding phaseolin, the major seed storage protein in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Mol Gen Genet 198: 42–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Taylor JRN, Schüssler L, Liebenberg, NvdW (1985) Protein body formation in starchyGoogle Scholar
  69. endosperm of developing Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds. S Afr J Bot 51: 35–40 Torrent M, Geli MI, Ludevid MD (1989) Storage-protein hydrolysis and protein-bodyGoogle Scholar
  70. breakdown in germinated Zea mays L. seeds. Planta 180: 90–95Google Scholar
  71. Ueng P, Galili G, Sapanara V, Goldsbrough PB, Dube P, Beachy RN, Larkins BA (1988) Expression of a maize storage protein gene in petunia plants is not restricted to seeds. Plant Physiol 86: 1281–1285PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Voelker TA, Herman EM, Chrispeels MJ (1989) In vitro mutated phytohemagglutinin genes expressed in tobacco seeds: role of glycans in protein targeting and stability. Plant Cell 1: 95–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Vonder Haar RA, Allen RA, Cohen EA, Nessler CL, Thomas TL (1988) Organization of the sunflower 11S storage protein gene family. Gene 74: 433–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wallace JC, Galili G, Kawata EE, Cuellar RE, Shotwell MA, Larkins BA (1988) Aggregation of lysine-containing zeins into protein bodies in Xenopus oocytes. Science 240: 662–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wallace JC, Ohtani T, Lending CR, Lopes M, Williamson JD, Shaw KL, Gelvin SB, Larkins BA (1990) Factors affecting physical and structural properties of maize protein bodies. In: Lamb C, Beachy RN (eds) Plant gene transfer. Alan R Liss, New York [UCLA symposium on molecular and cellular biology, new series, vol 129] (in press)Google Scholar
  76. Williamson JD, Galili G, Larkins BA, Gelvin SB (1988) The synthesis of a 19 kilodalton zein protein in transgenic Petunia plants. Plant Physiol 88: 1002–1007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wilson DM, Larkins BA (1984) Zein gene organization in maize and related grasses. J Mol Evol 29: 330–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wright DJ, Boulter D (1972) The characterization of vicilin during seed development in Vicia faba ( L. ). Planta 105: 60–65Google Scholar
  79. Yang MS, Espinoza NO, Nagpala PG, Dodds JH, White FF, Schnorr KL, Jaynes JM (1989) Expression of a synthetic gene for improved protein quality in transformed potato plants. Plant Sci 64: 99–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. Shotwell
    • 1
  • Brian A. Larkins
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant SciencesUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA

Personalised recommendations