Changes in brain energy metabolism and the early detection of Alzheimer’s disease
Among the early and most prominent disturbances of dementia of Alzheimer type are glycolytic glucose breakdown and pyruvate oxidation, associated with an excessive protein catabolism in the brain. It is suggested that the abnormality in intracellular glucose homeostasis is caused by a deficiency at the insulin/insulin receptor level in the neuron, indicating resemblance to non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus in non-nervous tissues, and a genetic influence as well. Therefore, non-nervous markers may help to detect AD: reduced activity of phosphofructokinase in skin fibroblasts; abnormal glucose tolerance test; abnormal morphology in nasal epithelium.
KeywordsAlzheimer Type Nasal Epithelium Cerebral Metabolic Rate Cerebral Glucose Metabolism Brain Energy Metabolism
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bowen DM, White P, Spillane JA, Goodhardt MJ, Curzon G, Iwangoff P, Meier-Ruge W, Davison AN (1979) Accelerated ageing or selective neuronal loss as an important cause of dementia? Lancet is 11–14Google Scholar
- Denton RM, McCormack JG, Thomas AP (1986) Hormonal regulation of intramitochondrial metabolism. Biol Chem Hoppe-Seyler 367 [Suppl]: 64Google Scholar
- Gibbs EL, Lennox WG, Nims LF, Gibbs FA (1942) Arterial and cerebral venous blood. Arterial-venous differences in man. J Biol Chem 144: 325–332Google Scholar
- Iwangoff P, Armbruster R, Enz A, Meier-Ruge W, Sandoz P (1980) Glycolytic enzymes from human autoptic brain cortex: normally aged and demented cases. In: Roberts PJ (ed) Biochemistry of dementia. Wiley, Chichester, pp 258–262Google Scholar
- Newsholme EA, Start C (1973) Regulation in metabolism. Wiley, Chichester, pp 100–104Google Scholar
- Siesjö BIB (1978) Brain energy metabolism. Wiley, Chichester, pp 1–55Google Scholar
- Sims NR, Bowen DM, Smith CCT, Flack RHA, Davison AN, Snowdon JS, Neary D (1980) Glucose metabolism and acetylcholine synthesis in relation to neural activity in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet is 333–336Google Scholar
- Sims NR, Bowen DM, Allen SJ, Smith CCT, Neary D, Thomas DJ, Davison AN (1983 a) Presynaptic cholinergic dysfunction in patients with dementia. J Neurochem 40: 503–509Google Scholar
- Sims NR, Finegan JM, Blass JP (1985 a) Altered glucose metabolism in fibroblasts from patients with Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med 313: 638–639Google Scholar
- Sims NR, Finegan JM, Bowen DM, Blass JP (1985b) Mitochondrial function in Alzheimer’s disease measured in vitro using neocortical tissue homogenates. J Neurochem 44 [Suppl]: S 192Google Scholar
- Sorbi S, Blass JP (1983) Fibroblast phosphofructokinase in Alzheimer’s disease and Down’s syndrome. Banbury Report 15: Biological aspects of Alzheimer’s disease. Cold Spring Laboratory, pp 297–307Google Scholar