Natural foci of arboviruses in far northern latitudes of Eurasia
From 1985–1988 we did virologie and serologic studies of hematophagous arthropods, small mammals, cattle and humans in northeastern Europe and Asia, i.e., in the arctic desert, in the moss-lichen and shrub tundra and forest tundra of the subarctic zones, and in northern and middle taiga of the Boreal region. California and Bunyamwera (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus) serogroup viruses were isolated from mosquitoes in all locations studied. In the northern Far East Getah-like virus of Semliki Forest antigenic complex (Togaviridae, Alphavirus) was also isolated from mosquitoes. Viruses from ticks Ixodes uriae were isolated Tyuleniy (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), Zaliv Terpeniya (Uukuvirus), Okhotsky (Reoviridae, Orbivirus) in the European part (eastern Fennoscandia) and additional Sakhalin, Paramushir, Clo Mor, Rukutama (Bunyaviridae, Nairovirus, Sakhalin serogroup), Aniva (Reoviridae, Orbivirus, Kemerovo serogroup) in the northern Far East. Tick-borne encephalitis and Tyuleniy virus strains were isolated from rodents. We obtained evidence that Zaliv Terpeniya and Tyuleniy viruses, which usually are tick-borne, “splash” from rookeries to the mainland and we found that mosquitoes are involved in circulation there. We also found evidence for a role of California serogroup viruses in human diseases. Thus, we recognized circumpolar distribution of these viruses. In addition, there was a uniformly high level of antibody to these viruses in humans and cattle. Finally, we noted seasonal and regional characteristics of activity of viruses within these complex natural foci.
KeywordsNorthern Taiga Middle Taiga Russian Plain Forest Tundra Shrub Tundra
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