Geographical distribution of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantaviruses
World-wide, about 150,000 people are hospitalized with hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) (3–10% fatality) each year. The etiologic agents of HFRS are Hantaan, Seoul, and Puumala viruses of the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. A severe form of HFRS, caused by Hantaan virus, occurs in Asia and eastern parts of Europe, a moderate form, caused by Seoul virus, occurs in Asia, and a mild form, caused by Puumala virus, occurs in Europe. Hantaan virus occurs in Asia and in eastern parts of Europe, Seoul-like viruses occur world-wide, Puumala virus occurs in Europe, and Prospect Hill and Leaky viruses (other hantaviruses) have been isolated in the U.S.A. The reservoirs of hantaviruses are rodents and other small mammals. Serologic studies of 42 hantaviruses isolated from HFRS patients and from animals indicated that there are 6 or 7 serotypes. In the 1990s, it is highly possible to identify HFRS and HFRS-like illnesses caused by hantaviruses in parts of the world where HFRS is not known because of the availability of serodiagnostic tests.
KeywordsHemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome Nephropathia Epidemica Hantaan Virus Puumala Virus Indirect Immunofluorescent Antibody
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