Intrasellar Pressure

  • P. D. Lees
Conference paper
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 47)


The adenohypophysis receives its blood supply from two portal venous systems through fenestrated venules which are structurally similar to capillaries (Page 1986). The orthodox view that there is no direct arterial supply has recently been challenged (Gorczyca and Hardy 1987) but it is accepted that any arterial supply only serves a small minority of the gland. This unusual anatomy suggests a fundamental difference in the dynamics of adenohypophysial perfusion when compared to other organs in the body and assumes particular importance because of the dual nutritive and neuroendocrine functions of the pituitary portal blood supply.


Pituitary Function Pituitary Stalk Portal Blood Flow Arterial Blood Supply Portal Venous Pressure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Antunes JL, Muraszko K, Stark R, Chen R (1983) Pituitary portal blood flow in primates: A Doppler study. Neurosurgery 12: 492–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker HL (1972) The angiographie delineation of sellar and para-sellar masses. Radiology 104: 67–78PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Carmel PW, Antunes JL, Ferin M (1979) Collection of blood from the pituitary stalk and portal veins in monkeys, and from the pituitary sinusoidal system of monkey and man. Neurosurg 50: 75–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daniel PM, Prichard MML (1975) Studies of the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 80 [Supp1201]: 1–216Google Scholar
  5. de Divitiis E, Spaziante R, Stella L (1981) Empty sella and benign intrasellar cysts. In: Krayenbühl H et al. (eds) Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery, Vol 8. Springer, Wien New York, pp 1–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elias KA, Weiner RI (1984) Direct arterial vascularization of estrogen-induced prolactin-secreting anterior pituitary tumors. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 81: 4549–4553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gorczyca W, Hardy J (1987) Arterial supply of the human anterior pituitary gland. Neurosurgery 20: 369–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lawton NF, Evans M, Weller RO (1981) Dopaminergic inhibition of growth hormone and prolactin release during continuous in vitro perifusion of normal and adenomatous human pituitary. J Neurol Sci 49: 229–239PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lawton NF, Evans M, Weller RO, Pickard JD, Perry S, Davies B (1986) Secretion of neurone-specific enolase, prolactin, growth hormone, luteinising hormone and follicle stimulating hormone by “functionless” and endocrine-active pituitay tumours in vitro. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 49: 574–580PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lees PD, Pickard JD (1987) Hyperprolactinemia, intrasellar pituitary tissue pressure and the pituitary stalk compression syndrome. J Neurosurg 67: 192–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. McConnell EM (1953) The arterial blood supply of the human hypophysis cerebri. Anat Rec 115: 175–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Nabarro JDN (1982) Pituitary prolactinomas. Clin Endocrinol 17: 129–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Neelon FA, Goree JA, Lebovitz HE (1973) The primary empty sella: clinical and radiographic characteristics and endocrine function. Medicine, Baltimore 52: 73–92Google Scholar
  14. Page RB (1986) The pituitary portal system. In: Ganten D, Pfaff D (eds) Current topics in neuroendocrinology, Vol 7. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 1–47Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. D. Lees
    • 1
  1. 1.Wessex Neurological CentreSouthampton General HospitalShirley, SouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations