Advertisement

Blood Volume Measurement Following Subarachnoid Haemorrhage

  • R. J. Nelson
Conference paper
Part of the Acta Neurochirurgica book series (NEUROCHIRURGICA, volume 47)

Abstract

The accurate assessment of circulating blood volume by direct clinical observation is notoriously difficult (Irwin et al. 1972). Measurements of central venous pressure, pulmonary wedge pressure and cardiac output may provide useful additional information about the cardiovascular status of patients, but involve invasive techniques with attendant risks, and require intensive care facilities (Finn et al. 1986, Pritz 1984 a, b). In contrast, blood volume measurements using radioisotopes are bedside procedures. However, for several reasons they have not been widely adopted in routine surgical practice. They require certain laboratory facilities and technical support and tend to be less accessible to the clinician who, as a result, remains unfamilar with their use. They are relatively time consuming to perform and unless sufficient care is taken significant methodological errors may occur. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, the problems of standardizing or predicting normal values may seriously hamper the interpretation of results.

Keywords

Blood Volume Subarachnoid Haemorrhage Total Body Water Circulate Blood Volume Inappropriate Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bartter FC, Schwartz WB (1967) The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Am J Med 42: 790–806PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Biron PE, Howard J, Altschule MD et al(1972) Chronic deficits in red-cell mass in patients with orthopaedic injuries (stress anaemia). J Bone Joint Surg Am 54: 1001–1014PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bouzarth WF, Shenkin HA (1982) Is “Cerebral hyponatraemia” iatrogenic? Lancet II: 1061–1062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cort JH (1954) Cerebral salt wasting. Lancet II 752–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davies DH, Sundt TM (1980) Relationship of cerebral blood flow to cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, blood volume and alpha and beta blockade in cats. J Neurosurg 52: 745–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Doczi T, Bende J, Huszka E, Kiss J (1981) Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Neurosurgery 9: 394–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Doczi T, Tarjanyi J, Huszka E, Kiss J (1982) Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) after head injury. Neurosurgery 10: 685–688PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Finn SS, Stephensen SA, Miller CA, Drobnich L, Hunt WE (1986) Observations on the perioperative management of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. J Neurosurg 65: 48–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fox JL, Falik JL, Shalour RJ (1971) Neurosurgical hyponatraemia: the role of inappropriate antidiuresis. J Neurosurg 34: 506–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hurley PJ (1975) Red cell and plasma volumes in normal adults. J Nucl Med 17: 46–52Google Scholar
  11. International committee for standardization in haematology (ICSH) (1973) Standard techniques for the measurement of red cell and plasma volume. Br J Haematol 25: 801–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Irwin TT, Hayter CJ, Modgill, Golligher JC (1972) Clinical assessment of postoperative blood volume. Lancet 2: 446–448Google Scholar
  13. Ivy HK (1961) Renal sodium loss and bronchogenic carcinoma. Arch Int Med 108: 47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jenkins JS, Mather HM, Ang V (1980) Vasopressin in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 364–367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaye M (1966) An investigation into the cause of hyponatraemia in the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Am J Med 41: 910–926PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kirsch KA, Johnson RF, Gorten RJ (1971) The significance of the total body venous haematocrit ratio in measurements of blood compartments. J Nucl Med 12: 17–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kudo T, Suzuki S, Iwabuchi T (1981) Importance of monitoring the circulating blood volume in patients with cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid haemorrhage. Neurosurgery 9: 514–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loria A, Sanchez-Medal L, Kauffer N, Quintanar E (1962) Relationship between body haematocrit and venous haematocrit in normal splenomegalic and anemic states. J Lab Clin Med 60: 396–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Maroon JD, Nelson PB (1979) Hypovolaemia in patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage: Therapeutic implications. Neurosurgery 4: 223–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McLaurin RL, King L, Tutor FT, Knowles Jr H (1960a) Metabolic response to intracranial surgery. Surg Forum 10: 770–773Google Scholar
  21. McLaurin RL, Elam EB, Buddle RB (1960b) Metabolic response to craniocerebral trauma. Surg Gynec Obstet 110: 282–288Google Scholar
  22. McLaurin RL (1975) Metabolic effects of head injury. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of clinical neurology, vol 23: Injuries of the brain and skull, pp 109–131Google Scholar
  23. Moore FD, Ball MR (1952) The metabolic response to surgery. Ch C Thomas, Springfield IllGoogle Scholar
  24. Moore FD, Olesen JD, McMurrey H, Parker V, Ball MR, Boyden C (1963) The body cell mass and its supporting environment: body composition in health and disease. WB Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Naddler SB, Hidalgo JU, Bloch T (1962) Prediction of blood volume in normal human subjects. Surgery 51: 224–232Google Scholar
  26. Nelson RI, Roberts J, Ackery DM, Pickard JD (1987) Measurement of total circulating blood volume following subarachnoid haemorrhage: methodological aspects. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 50: 1130–1135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nelson PB, Seif SM, Maroon JC, Robinson AG (1981) Hyponatraemia in intracranial disease: perhaps not the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). J Neurosurg 55: 938–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Nelson PB, Gutai J, Robinson AG (1984) Hyponatraemia and natriuresis following subarachnoid haemorrhage in a monkey model. J Neurosurg 60: 233–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Noble RP, Gregersen MI (1946) Mixing time and disappearance of T-1824 in shock. J Clin Invest 25: 158–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peters JP, Welt LG, Sims EAH et al(1950) A salt-wasting syndrome associated with cerebral disease. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 63: 57–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Pickard JD, Matheson M, Patterson J, Wyper D (1980) Prediction of late ischaemic complications after cerebral aneurysm surgery by the intraoperative measurement of cerebral blood flow. J Neurosurg 53: 305–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Pritz MB (1984a) Monitoring cardiac function and intravascular volume in neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgery 15: 775–780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Pritz MB (1984b) Treatment of cerebral vasospasm. Usefulness of Swan-Ganz Catheter monitoring of volume expansion. Surg Neurol 21: 239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Retzlaff JA, Tause WN, Kieley JM et al(1969) Erythrocyte volume, plasma volume, and lean body mass in adult men and women. Blood 33: 649–661PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Rossing N (1967) The normal metabolism of 131I-labelled albumin in man Clin Sci 33: 593–602Google Scholar
  36. Rothschild MA, Bowman A, Yalow RS, Berson SA (1955) Tissue distribution of 131-labelled human serum albumin following intravenous administration. J Clin Invest 34: 1354–1358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Schwartz WB, Bennet W, Curelop S, Bartter FC (1957) A syndrome of renal sodium loss and hyponatraemia probably resulting from inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. Am J Med 23: 529–542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Solomon RA, Post KD, McMurty III JG (1984) Depression of circulating blood volume in patients after subarachnoid haemorrhage: Implications for the management of symptomatic vasospasm. Neurosurgery 15: 354–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sundt TM, Whisnant JP (1978) Subarachnoid haemorrhage from intracranial aneurysms: Surgical management and natural history. N Engl J Med 229: 116–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Symon L (1978) Disordered cerebrovascular physiology in aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 41: 7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tarazi RC, Frohlich ED, Dustan HP (1968) Plasma volume in men with essential hypertension. N Engl J Med 278: 762–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Valeri CR, Donahue K, Feingold HM, Cassidy GP, Altschule MD (1986) Increase in plasma volume after the transfusion of washed erythrocytes. Surg Gynec Obstet 162: 30–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Wennesland R, Brown E, Hopper J et al(1959) Red cell, plasma and blood volume in healthy mean measured by radiochromium (51Cr) cell tagging and haematocrit: influence of age, somatotype and habits of physical activity on the variance after regression of volumes to height and weight combined. J Clin Invest 38: 1065–1077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wijdicks EFM, Vermeulen M, ten Haaf JA, Hijdra A, Bakker WH, van Gijn J (1985a) Volume depletion and natriuresis in patients with a ruptured intracranial aneurysm. Ann Neurol 18: 211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Wijdicks EFM, Hijdra A, van Gijn J (1985b) Hyponatraemia and cerebral infarction in patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysms: Is fluid restriction harmful? Ann Neurol 17: 137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wright RR, Tono M, Pollcove M (1975) Blood volume. Sem Nucl Med 5: 63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zimmermann B (1965) Pituitary and adrenal function in relation to surgery. Surg Clin N Amer 45: 299–315PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. Nelson
    • 1
  1. 1.Wessex Neurological CentreSouthampton General HospitalSouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations