Central Nervous System Control of Fluid Balance: Physiology and Pathology
The water content of the body is divided between extracellular and intracellular compartments. The 33% of body water in the extracellular fluid is very finely regulated and even following major physiological changes such as exercise, drinking or eating, plasma osmolality remains within a narrow range of about 286–294 mmol/kg. The pre-eminent mechanism controlling body water content is the hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) which is synthesized in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, and acts on the kidney to reduce free water clearance.
KeywordsMultiple System Atrophy Diabetes Insipidus Hypertonic Saline Plasma Osmolality Vasopressin Secretion
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