Morpho-anatomy and Muscle Synergies of the Cervical Spine During Head Orienting Movements in the Monkey
In a monoarticular movement  it is possible according to Wright’s criteria , to ascribe from geometric and kinematic characteristics, a function to each one of the muscles participating in a given motor task. However, head orienting movement is usually the result of complex movements across a multijoint system controlled by more than fifteen pairs of muscles. Study of the action of these muscles requires an extensive analysis of the osteo-articular and muscle-ligament systems of the cervical cephalic segment. Such an analysis was made in cats [6, 7], monkeys  and humans . In the same line a recent work WSLS focused on a comparative study for several species as guinea pig, lizard, frog, chicken, rabbit, cat, monkey and human .
KeywordsCervical Spine Neck Muscle Muscle Synergy Deep Muscle Lower Cervical Spine
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Kapandji IA (1974) Physiology of the joints. The trunk-spinal column, vol 3. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, p 251Google Scholar
- 4.Lestienne FG, Liverneaux PhA (1988) Muscular synergies of neck muscles during monkey’s head movement. J Physiol (Lond) C27 (in press)Google Scholar
- 5.Liverneaux PhA, Pellionisz AJ, Lestienne FG (1987) Morpho-anatomy and muscular synergies of sub-occipital muscles in Macaca mulatta: study of head-trunk coordination. Proceedings of IBRO. II World Congress, 16-24 Aug 1987. Neu- roscience, Absts 1970 pGoogle Scholar
- 8.Vidal PP, Graf W, Berthoz A (1986) The orientation of the cervical vertebral column in unrestrained awake animals. 1. Resting position. Exp Brain Res 61: 549–559Google Scholar
- 9.Wilkie DR (1950) The relation between force and velocity in human muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 110: 249–280Google Scholar
- 10.Wright S (1952) Applied physiology, 9th edn. Oxford University Press, London, 1190 ppGoogle Scholar
- 11.Zangemeister WH, Stark L (1981) Active head rotation and eye head coordination: In: Cohen B (ed) Vestibular and oculomotor physiology. Ann NY Acad Sci 374: 540–559Google Scholar