Lateral Retropharyngeal Approach to the Upper Cervical Spine: Long-term Follow-up
Whitesides  first reported a lateral retropharyngeal approach to the upper cervical spine in 1966. The classic Robinson and Smith approach , medial to the carotid sheath, allows anterior exposure to C3 only. The approach can be extended proximally to allow access to the occipitocervical region. However, the surgical exposure is very limited, and injury to the laryngeal nerve may result . Transoral and transpharyngeal approaches are also possible but are fraught with high morbidity and mortality [1, 4, 5]. This paper reports long-term follow-up of the Whitesides approach to the upper cervical spine.
KeywordsCervical Spine Vertebral Artery Giant Cell Tumor Carotid Sheath Direct Anterior Approach
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