Amine oxidases and their endogenous substrates (with special reference to monoamine oxidase and the brain)
There is no discrete subdivision into substrates selective for MAO-A, MAO-B, or mixed ones, but rather a continuum.
Tissue differences in substrate specificity are not likely to be due to molecular variability of MAO. For the deamination of DA, 5-HT and PEA at least, the relative participation of either MAO form in a given tissue is primarily determined by the relative abundance of the two forms; only at 10-5M and above, substrate concentration begins to matter also.
In vivo, compartmentation is of paramount importance: since there seems to be more MAO-A than B inside monoaminergic neurons, DA, 5-HT and NA are predominantly metabolized by MAO-A if metabolism occurs mainly intraneuronally. Conversely, since MAO-B is more abundant extraneuronally, e.g. in glia cells, the relative participation of this form increases if a significant portion of these amines is deaminated outside monoaminergic neurons.
In vivo, monoamine deamination is reduced concomitantly with the degree of MAO inhibition, whereas signs of increased transmitter function are only observed if enzyme inhibition is at least 80%. This is likely to be the result of the action of compensatory mechanisms such as feedback inhibition of transmitter release and synthesis.
BzO is particularly abundant in vascular tissue, lung and bone. Low levels are found in brain. Endogenous substrates and physiological function are not known. DAO also occurs only in minimal amount in brain, if at all. Its principal substrates are histamine and the polyamines, and the disposal of these amines is probably its main function. Of the PAO’s, the type of enzyme found in the rat liver attacks the secondary amino groups and may have a more prominent role in the metabolism of polyamines in the brain than in the periphery. Bovine plasma PAO, which attacks primary amino groups, is only found in the serum of ruminants, but not other species. Its function in the metabolism of polyamines is not known.
KeywordsMonoamine Oxidase Endogenous Substrate Amine Oxidase Diamine Oxidase Monoamine Oxidase Activity
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