The embryologic development of venous valves was investigated by Jäger (1926) as well as by Kampmeier and La Fleur Birch (1926–1927). In the jugular veins of pig embryos with head-to-coccyx sizes ranging from between 74 and 83 mm, Jäger found incipient bulgings of the lumen which constitute the preliminary stage of venous valves.
KeywordsSaphenous Vein Paired Vortex Secondary Vortex Embryologic Development Venous Valve
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