Intraoperative Real-Time Ultrasonography: Localization, Characterization and Instrumentation of Lesions of Brain and Spinal Cord
As tissue of the central nervous system is so delicate and as manipulation or exploration of the tissue could increase the morbidity of the operative procedure, precise localization of lesions within the brain or spinal cord is mandatory. Angiograms, computed tomographic (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) scans demonstrate the lesion but do so from a given perspective; this perspective is often quite different from the position of the patient on the operating table and there is a limited area of tissue exposure. The lesion is usually located beneath the surface of brain or spinal cord. We thought that intraoperative real-time ultrasound imaging would help with this localization and also serve to characterize the tissue (i.e., solid tumor vs. necrosis vs. cyst) and we worked to develop neurosurgical real-time ultrasound imaging to aid with such problems 2–5, 9–13.
KeywordsSpinal Cord Ventricular Catheter Videotape Recorder High Frequency Transducer Instrument Guide
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