Advertisement

Studies of Plasma Reaction Processes Using a Flowing-Afterglow/Langmuir Probe Apparatus

  • D. Smith
  • N. G. Adams

Abstract

As recently as some twenty five years ago even the order-of-magnitude of the thermal energy rate coefficient, k, for any ion-molecule reaction could not be quoted with conviction, and the forms of the temperature variations of rate coefficients were quite unknown. The first reliable data under well- defined conditions, were obtained using stationary afterglow techniques [1], but a truly dramatic increase in the understanding of thermal energy ion- molecule reactions resulted from the development and exploitation of the flowing afterglow technique by E.E. Ferguson, F.C. Fehsenfeld and A.L. Schmeltekopf in 1964 [2,3]. During the first few years, flowing afterglows were operated only at room temperature and the k were determined!for a large number of different types of ion-molecule reactions (e.g. charge transfer, proton transfer, etc.). These studies showed that the large majority of exoergic binary (two-body) ion-molecule reactions proceeded rapidly at room temperature , i.e. k~kc (the collisional rate coefficient). For non-polar molecules, kc is the classical collision (Langevin) rate coefficient [4]; for polar molecules, kc is somewhat greater [5].

Keywords

Rate Coefficient Isotope Exchange Interstellar Cloud Isotope Exchange Reaction Binary Reaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Sayers, J., Smith, D.: Disc. Faraday Soc. 37, 167 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ferguson, E.E., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Dunkin, D.B., Schmeltekopf, A.L., Schiff, H.I.: Planet. Space Sci. 12, 1169 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferguson, E.E., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Schmeltekopf, A.L.: Adv. Atom. Mol. Phys. 5, 1 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gioumousis, G., Stevenson, D.P.: J. Chem. Phys. 29, 294 (1958)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. Su, T., Bowers, M.T.: In: Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Vol. 1 (Bowers, M.T. Ed.), p. 84, New York: Academic Press, 1979Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferguson, E.E., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Albritton, D.L. In: Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Vol. 1 (Bowers, M.T. Ed.), p. 45, New York: Academic Press.1979.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G. In: Topics in Current Chemistry, Vol. 89 (Veprek, S., Venugopalan, M. Eds.), p. 1, Berlin: Springer-Verlag.1980.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Smith, D., Fouracre, R.A.: Planet. Space Sci. 16, 243 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunkin, D.B., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Schmeltekopf, A.L., Ferguson, E.E.: J. Chem. Phys. 49, 1365 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Adams, N.G., Böhme, D.K., Dunkin, D.B., Fehsenfeld, F.C.: J. Chem. Phys. 52, 1951 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lindinger, W., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Schmeltekopf, A.L., Ferguson, E.E.: J. Geophys. Res. 79, 4753 (1974).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 21, 349 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herbst, E., Klemperer, W.: Ap. J. 185, 505 (1973).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dalgarno, A., Black, J.H.: Rept. Prog. Phys. 39, 573 (1976).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Int. Revs. Phys. Chem. 1, 271 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G. In: Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Vol. 1 (Bowers, M.T. Ed.), p. 1,New York: Academic Press.1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Böhringer, H. Arnold, F.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 49, 61 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rowe, B.R., Dupeyrat, G., Marquette, J.B.: J. Chem. Phys: in press.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Luine, J.A.: PhD Thesis, University of Colorado, Boulder (1981): Luine, J.A., Dunn, G.H.: Phys. Rev. Lett, submitted.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    DePuy, C.H. In: Ionic Processes in the Gas Phase (Almoster Ferreira, M.A. Ed.),p. 227, Dordrecht: Reidel. 1984.Google Scholar
  21. Viggiano, A.A., Paulson, J.F., see their chapter in this book.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Meot-Ner, M. In: Gas Phase Ion Chemistry, Vol. 1 (Bowers, M.T. Ed.), p. 197, New York: Academic Press.1979.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen, A., Johnsen, R., Biondi, M.A.: J. Chem. Phys. 69, 2688 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fehsenfeld, F.C. Albritton, D.L., Bush, Y.A., Fournier, P.G., Gowers, T.R., Fournier, J.: J. Chem. Phys. 61, 2150 (1974).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dotan, I.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 75, 509 (1980).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G. In: Reactions of Small Transient Species: Kinetics and Energetics (Fontijn, A., Clyne, M.A.A. Eds.), p. 311, New York: Academic Press.1983.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Rowe, B.R., Dupeyrat, G., Marquette, J.B., Smith, D., Adams, N.G., Ferguson, E.E.: J. Chem. Phys. (1984) in press.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fehsenfeld, F.C., Lindinger, W., Schmeltekopf, A.L., Albritton, D.L., Ferguson, E.E.: J. Chem. Phys. 62, 2001 (1975).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Mon. Not. R. astr. Soc. 197, 377 (1981).ADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Luine, J.A., Dunn, G.H.: 12th Int. Conf. on Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions, Gatlinburg, Tennessee, July 1981.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G., Miller, T.M.: J. Chem. Phys. 69, 308 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dotan, I., Fehsenfeld, F.C., Albritton, D.L.: J. Chem. Phys. 68, 5665 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lindinger, W., Smith, D. In: Reactions of Small Transient Species: Kinetics and Energetics (Fontijn, A., Clyne, M.A.A. Eds.), p. 387, New York: Academic Press 1983.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Magnera, T.F., Kebarle, P. In: Ionic Processes in the Gas Phase (Almoster Ferreira, M.A. Ed.),p. 135,Dordrecht: Reidel.1984.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kebarle, P.: Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 28, 445 (1977).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Castleman, A.W. Jr. In: Kinetics of Ion Molecule Reactions (Ausloos, P. Ed.),p. 295, New York: Plenum Press. 1975.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Böhme, D.K., Mackay, G.I., Schiff, H.J.: J. Chem. Phys. 73, 4976 (1980).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: Chem. Phys. Lett. (1984) in press.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Ap. J. 242, 424 (1980).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Henchman, M.J., Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: J. Chem. Phys. 75, 1201 (1981).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: Ap. J.(Lett.) 247, 423 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: Ap. J. 248, 373 (1981).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D., Henchman, M.J.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 42, 11 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G., Alge, E.: J. Chem. Phys. 77, 1261 (1982).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G., Alge, E.: Ap. J. 263, 123 (1982).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G. In: Ionic Processes in the Gas Phase (Almoster Ferreira, M.A. Ed.),p. 41, Dordrecht: Reidel.1984.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Watson, W.D., Anicich, V.G., Huntress, W.T. Jr.: Ap. J. (Letters) 205, L165 (1976).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Watson, W.D.: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 16, 585 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Huber, K.P., Herzberg, G.: Molecular Spectra and Molecular Structure, IV Constants of Diatomic Molecules, New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. 1979.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carney, G.D., Porter, R.N.: J. Chem. Phys. 2756 (1977).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Herbst, E.: Astron. Astro.111, 76 (1982).ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: in preparation.217Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Henchman, M.J., Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 42, 25 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Good, A.: Chem. Revs. 75, 561 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 79, 563 (1981).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bohringer, H, Arnold, F., Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. 52, 25 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Bates, D.R.: J. Phys. B. 12, 4135 (1979).ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Herbst, E.: J. Chem. Phys. 70, 2201 (1979).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Herbst, E.: J. Chem. Phys. 72, 5284 (1980).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bates, D.R.: J. Chem. Phys. 73, 1000 (1980).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bass, L.M., Chesnavich, W.J., Bowers, M.T.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 101, 5493 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Bass, L.M., Jennings, K.R.: Int. J. Mass Spectrom. Ion Phys. (1984) in press.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G., Alge, E.: Chem. Phys. Lett. (1984) in press.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Bass, L.M., Kemper, P.R., Anicich, V.G., Bowers, M.T.: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 103, 5283 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Adams, N.G., Smith, D, Lister, D.G., Rakshit, A.B., Tichy, M., Twiddy, N.D.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 63, 166 (1979).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schiff, H.I., Böhme, D.K.: Ap. 232, 740 (1979).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    McEwan, M.J., Anicich, V.G., Huntress, W.T. Jr., Kemper, P.R., Bowers, M.T. In: Interstellar Molecules (Andrew, B.H. Ed.), p. 305, Dordrecht: Reidel. 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Ap. J. 217, 741 (1977).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Smith, D., Adams, N.G.: Ap. J. (Lett.) 220, L87 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. Herbst, E., Adams, N.G., Smith, D.: in preparation.Google Scholar
  71. Adams, N.G., Smith, D., Ferguson, E.E.: in preparation.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Elitzur, M., Watson, W.D.: Ap. J. (Lett.) 222, L141 (1978).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Smith
    • 1
  • N. G. Adams
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Space ResearchUniversity of BirminghamBirminghamEngland

Personalised recommendations