Sequence Variation and Stress

  • C. A. Cullis
Part of the Plant Gene Research book series (GENE)


Higher eukaryotes have very complex nuclear genomes. An understanding of the origins of this complexity is beginning to emerge with the recognition that the DNA of higher organisms is subject to a variety of sequence rearrangements including amplification, deletion, mutation and translocation both within and between chromosomes. The changes thus generated can spread through populations so that certain segments of the genome change rapidly during evolution. Comparisons of the genome of closely related species (see Flavell, 1982, this volume) describe the products of these processes rather than the actual series of events by which a particular arrangement was produced. Potential mechanisms for the production of sequence rearrangements include unequal crossing-over within tandem arrays, amplifications, deletions and rearrangements associated with the activation of transposable elements, and the amplification of portions of the genome containing a gene conferring a selectable advantage.


Somaclonal Variation Intraspecific Cross Heritable Change Sequence Rearrangement Environmental Induction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Britten, R. J., Graham, D. E., Neufeld, B. R., 1974: Analysis of repeating sequences by reassociation kinetics. In: Grossman, L., Moldave, K. (eds.). Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 29, pp. 363–405, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, P. C., Tlsty, T. D., Schimke, R. T., 1983: Enhancement of methotrexate resistance and dihydrofolate reductase gene amplification by treatment of mouse 3T6 cells with hydroxyurea. Mol. Cell Biol. 3, 1097–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cullis, C. A., 1975: Environmentally induced DNA differences in flax. In: Markham, R., Davies, D. R., Hopwood, D. A., and Home, R. W. (eds.): Modification ot the Information Content of Plant Cells, pp. 27–36. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  4. Cullis, C. A., 1976: Environmentally induced changes in ribosomal RNA cistron number in flax. Heredity 36, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cullis, C. A., 1977: Molecular aspects of the environmental induction of heritable changes in flax. Heredity 38, 129–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cullis, C. A, 1979: Quantitative variation of ribosomal RNA genes in flax genotrophs. Heredity 42, 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cullis, C. A., 1981 a: Environmental induction of heritable changes in flax: Defined environments inducing changes in rDNA and peroxidase isozyme band pattern. Heredity 47, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cullis, C. A, 1981b: DNA sequence organisation in the flax genome. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 652, 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Cullis, C. A, 1983 a: Environmentally induced DNA changes in plants. CRC Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 1, 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cullis, C. A, 1983b: Variable DNA sequences in flax. In: Chater, K. F., Cullis, C. A, Hopwood, D. A., Johnston, A. W. B., Woolhouse, H. W. (eds.): Genetic Rearrangement, pp. 253–264. Croon Helm U. K.Google Scholar
  11. Cullis, C. A, 1984 a: Rapidly varying DNA sequences in flax. Theoret. App. Genet. Submitted. Sequence Variation and Stress 167Google Scholar
  12. Cullis, C. A., 1984 b: DNA variation in flax tissue culture. Theoret. App. Genet, submitted.Google Scholar
  13. Cullis, C. A., Charlton, L. M., 1981: The induction of ribosomal DNA changes in flax. Plant Sci. Lett. 20, 213–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Paepe, R., Prat, D., and Huget, T., 1982: Heritable nuclear DNA changes in doubled haploid (D. H.) plants obtained by pollen culture of Nicotiana sylvestris. Plant Sci. Lett. 28, 11–28.Google Scholar
  15. Dhillon, S. S., Wernsman, E. A., Miksche, J. P., 1983: Evaluation of nuclear DNA content and heterochromatin changes in anther-derived dihaploids of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). C. V. Coker 139. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 25, 169–173.Google Scholar
  16. Dolnick, B. J., Berenson, R. J., Bertino, J. R, Kaufman, R. J., Nunberg, J. H., Schimke, R. T., 1979: Correlation of dihydrofolate reductase elevation with gene amplification in a homogeneously staining chromosomal region in C5178 Y cells. J. Cell Biol. 83, 394–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Durrant, A., 1962: The environmental induction of heritable changes in Linum. Heredity 17, 27–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Durrant, A., 1971: Induction and growth of flax genotrophs. Heredity 27,277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Durrant, A., 1981: Unstable genotypes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, B292, 467–474.Google Scholar
  20. Edallo, S., Zucchinali, C., Perezin, M., Salamini, E., 1981: Chromosomal variation and frequency of spontaneous mutation associated with in vitro culture and plant regeneration in maize. Maydica 26, 39–56.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, G. M., 1968: Nuclear changes in flax. Heredity 23, 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flavell, R. B., 1982: Sequence amplification, deletion and rearrangement: major sources of variation during species divergence. In: Flavell, R. B., Dover, G. A. (eds.): Genome Evolution, pp. 301–323, New York: Academic Press,.Google Scholar
  23. Gegenbach, B. G., Conelly, D. R, Pring, D. R, Conde, M. F, 1981: Mitochondrial DNA variation in maize plants regenerated during tissue culture selection. Theor. Appl. Genet. 59, 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gerstel, D. U., Burns, J. A., 1976: Enlarged euchromatic chromosomes (“mega-chromosomes”) in hybrids between Nicotiana tabacum and N. plumbaginifolia. Genetica 46, 139–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Goldsbrough, P. B., Cullis, C. A., 1981: Characterisation of the genes for ribosomal RNA in flax. Nuc. Acid. Res. 9, 1301–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Goldsbrough, P. B., Ellis, T. H. N., Cullis, C. A, 1981: Organisation of the 5 S RNA genes in flax. Nuc. Acid. Res. 9, 5895–5904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Graves, J. A. M., 1984: Gene amplification in a mouse embryo? Double minutes in cell lines independently derived from a Mus musculus x M. caroli fetus. Chromosoma (Berl.) 89, 138–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hutchinson, J., Rees, H., Seal, A. G., 1979: An assay of the activity of supplementary DNA in Lolium. Heredity 43, 411–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ingle, J., Pearson, G. G., Sinclair, J., 1973: Species destribution and properties of nuclear satellite DNA in higher plants. Nature New Biol. 242, 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Joarder, I. O., Al-Saheal, Y., Begum, J., Durrant, A., 1975: Environments inducing changes in the amount of DNA in flax. Heredity 34, 247–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Larkin, P. J., Scowcroft, W. R, 1981: Somaclonal variation — A novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theor. Appl. Genet. 60, 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Larkin, P. J., Scowcroft, W. R, 1983: Somaclonal variation and crop improvement. In: Kosuge, T., Meredity, C. P., Hollander, A., (eds.): Genetic Engineering in Plants, pp. 289–314. New York: Plenum PressGoogle Scholar
  33. McClintock, B., 1978: Mechanisms that rapidly reorganize the genome. Stadler Symposium. 10, 25–47.Google Scholar
  34. McCoy, T. J., Phillips, R. L., Rives, H. W., 1982: Cytogenetic analysis of plants regenerated from oat (Avena sativa) tissue cultures; high frequency of partial chromosome loss. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 24, 37–50.Google Scholar
  35. Ogihara, Y., 1981: Tissue culture in Haworthia. Part 4: Genetic characterisation of plants regenerated from callus. Theoret. Appl. Genet. 60, 353–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Price, H. J., Chambers, K. L., Bachman, K., Riggs, J., 1983: Inheritance of nuclear 2C DNA content variation in intraspecific and interspecific hybrids of Microseris (Asteraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 70, 1133–1138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rivin, C. J., Cullis, C. A., 1983: Modulation of repetitive DNA in the maize genome. Genetics 104, 859–860.Google Scholar
  38. Shepard, J. F., Bidney, D., Shahin, E., 1980: Potato protoplasts in crop improvement. Science 208, 17–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Timmis, J. N., Ingle, J., 1973: Environmentally induced changes in rRNA gene redundancy. Nature New Biol. 244, 235–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. A. Cullis
    • 1
  1. 1.John Innes InstituteNorwichEngland

Personalised recommendations