Advertisement

Repeated Sequences and Genome Change

  • R. B. Flavell
Part of the Plant Gene Research book series (GENE)

Abstract

Repeated sequences, by their very nature of being present in many copies in the genome, appear to be prone to rapid change. Enzymes, especially those involved in recombination and replication, appear to mistake one copy for another and produce various new DNA structures. Other sorts of repeats, notably those in transposable elements, are recognised by enzymes, excised from the chromosomes and integrated elsewhere.

Keywords

Transposable Element Inverted Repeat Gene Conversion Concerted Evolution Genome Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appels, R, Dvorak, J., 1982: The wheat ribosomal DNA spacer region: Its structure and variation in populations and among species. Theoret. and Applied Genetics 63, 337–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnheim, N., 1983: Concerted evolution of multigene families. In: Nei, M., and Koehn, R. K. (eds.): Evolution of Genes and Proteins, pp. 38–61. Sunderland, Mass., U.S.A.: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  3. Baltimore, D., 1981: Gene conversion: some implications for immunoglobulin genes. Cell 24, 592–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bachmann, K., Price, H. J., 1977: Repetitive DNA in Cichorieae (compositae). Chromosoma (Berl.) 61, 267–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bedbrook, J. R, Jones, J., O’Dell, M., Thompson, R. D., Flavell, R. B., 1980a: A molecular description of telomeric heterochromatin in Secale species. Cell 19, 545–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bedbrook, J. R., O’Dell, M., Flavell, R. B. 1980b: Amplification of rearranged sequences in cereal plants. Nature 288, 133–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett, M. D., 1972: Nuclear DNA content and minimum generation time in herbaceous plants. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 181, 109–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett, M. D., 1973: Nuclear characters in plants. Brookhaven Symposia in Biology 25, 344–366.Google Scholar
  9. Bostock, C., 1980: A function for satellite DNA? Trends in Biochem. Sciences 5, 117–119.Google Scholar
  10. Bostock, C., Tyler-Smith, 1982: Changes to genomic DNA in methotrexate resistant cells. In: Dover, G. A., Flavell, R. B., (eds.): Genome Evolution, pp. 69–94. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cullis, C. A., Davies, D. R, 1975: Ribosomal DNA amounts in Pisum sativum. Genetics 81, 485–492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dellaporta, S., 1985: This volume.Google Scholar
  13. Dennis, E. S., Gerlach, W. L., Peacock, W. J., 1980: Identical polypyrimidine polypurine satellite DNAs in wheat and barley. Heredity 44, 349–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deumling, B., 1981: Sequence arrangement of a highly methylated satellite DNA of a plant, Scilla: a tandemly repeated inverted repeat. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 78, 338–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deumling, B., Greilhuber, J., 1982: Characterization of heterochromatin in different species of the Scilla siberica group (Liliaceae) by in situ hybridization of satellite DNAs and fluorochrome banding. Chromosoma 84, 535–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Döring, H. P., Tillmann, E., Starlinger, P., 1984: DNA sequence of the maize transposable element Dissociation. Nature 307, 127–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dover, G. A, 1982: Molecular drive: a cohesive mode of species evolution. Nature 299, 111–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dover, G. A, Flavell, R. B., 1984: Molecular Coevolution: DNA divergence and the maintenance of function. Cell 38, 622–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Federoff, N., Wessler, S., Shure, M., 1983: Isolation of the transposable maize controlling elements Ac and Ds. Cell 35, 235–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fincham, J. R. S., Sastry, G. R. K., 1974: Controlling elements in maize. Annual Rev. Genetics 8, 15–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Flavell, A. J., Ish-Horowicz, D., 1982: Extrachromosomal circular copies of the eukaryotic transposable element copia in culturedDrosophila cells. Nature 292, 591–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Flavell, R. B., 1980: The molecular characterization and organization of plant chromosomal DNA sequences. Annual Rev. Plant Physiology 31, 569–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flavell, R, 1982 a: Amplification deletion and rearrangement: major sources of variation during species divergence. In: Dover, G. A, Flavell, R. B. (eds): Genome Evolution, pp. 301–324. London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Flavell, R. B., 1982b: Chromosomal DNA sequences and their organisation. In: Nucleic Acids and Proteins in Plants II, Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New series 14 B, 46–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Flavell, R. B., 1983: Repeated sequences and genome architecture. In: Ciferri, O., and Dure, L. (eds.): Structure and Function of Plant Genomes, pp. 1 — 14. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  26. Flavell, R. B., 1984 a: DNA transposition — a major contributor to plant chromosome structure. Bio Essays, 1, 21–22.Google Scholar
  27. Flavell, R. B., 1984 b: Transposable elements. Oxford Surveys of Plant Molec. and Cell Biology 1, 207–210.Google Scholar
  28. Flavell, R. B., Jones, J., Lonsdale, D., O’Dell, M., 1983: Higher plant genome structure and the dynamics of genome evolution. In: Downey, K., Voellmy, R. W., Ahmed, F., and Schultz, J. (eds.): Advances in gene technology, pp. 47–59. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Flavell, R. B., O’Dell, M., Smith, D. B., 1979: Repeated sequence DNA comparisons between Triticum and Aegilops species. Heredity 42, 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Flavell, R. B., Rimpau, J., Smith, D. B., 1977: Repeated sequence DNA relationships in four cereal genomes. Chromosoma (Berl.) 63, 205–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Flavell, R. B., Smith, D. B., 1974: Variation in nucleolar organiser rRNA gene multiplicity in wheat and rye. Chromosoma (Berl.) 47, 327–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Freeling, M., 1984: Plant transposable elements and insertion sequences. Ann. Rev. Plant Physiology 35, 277–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gerlach, W. L., Peacock, W. J., 1980: Chromosomal locations of highly repeated DNA sequences in wheat. Heredity 44, 269–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hickey, D. A., 1982: Selfish DNA: a sexually-transmitted nuclear parasite. Genetics 101, 519–531.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hinegardner, R., 1976: Evolution of genome size. In: Ayala, F. J. (ed.): Molecular Evolution, pp. 179–199. Sunderland, Mass., U.S.A.: Sinauer Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Hourcade, D., Dressier, D., Wolfson, J., 1973: The amplification of ribosomal RNA genes involving a rolling circle intermediate. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., U. S. A. 70, 2926–2930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Jones, J. D., Flavell, R. B., 1982 a: The mapping of highly repeated DNA families and their relationship to C bands in chromosomes of Secale cereale. Chromosoma (Berl.) 86, 595–612.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jones, J. D., Flavell, R. B., 1982 b: The structure amount and chromosomal localization of defined repeated DNA sequences in species of the genus Secale. Chromosoma (Berl.) 86, 613–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. John, B., Miklos, G. L. G., 1979: Functional aspects of heterochromatin and satellite DNA. Int. Rev. Cytol. 58, 1–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kedes, L. H. A., 1979: Histone genes and histone messengers. Ann. Rev. of Biochem. 48, 837–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klein, H. L., Petes, T. D., 1981: Intrachromosomal gene conversion in yeast. Nature 289, 144–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Larkin, P. J., Scowcroft, W. R., 1981: Somaclonal variation — a novel source of variability from cell cultures for plant improvement. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 60, 197–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Miklos, G. L., Gill, A. C.,1982: Nucleotide sequences of highly repeated DNAs; compilation and comments. Genet. Res. Camb. 39, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Narayan, R. K. J., Rees, H., 1977: Nuclear DNA divergence among Lathyrus species. Chromosoma (Berl.) 63, 101 — 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Narayan, R. K. J., Rees, H., 1976: Nuclear DNA variation in Lathyrus. Chromosoma (Berl.) 54, 141–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ohta, T., 1983 a: Theoretical study on the accumulation of selfish DNA. Genet. Research 41, 1 — 15.Google Scholar
  47. Ohta, T., 1983 b: On the evolution of multigene families. Theoretical Population Biology 23, 216–240.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Ohta, T., Dover, G. A, 1983: Population genetics of multigene families that are dispersed in two or more chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 80, 4079–4083.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Petes, T. D., 1980: Unequal meiotic recombination within tandem arrays of yeast ribosomal DNA genes. Cell 19, 765–774.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Preisler, R. S., Thompson, W. F., 1981a: Evolutionary sequence divergence within repeated DNA families of higher plant genomes. I. Analysis of reassociation kinetics. Journal Molecular Evolution 17, 78–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Preisler, R. S., Thompson, W. F., 1981b: Evolutionary sequence divergence within repeated DNA families of higher plant genomes. II. Analysis of thermal denaturation. J. Molecular Evolution 17, 85–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ramirez, S. A., Sinclair, J. H., 1975: Intraspecific variation of ribosomal gene redundancy in Zea mays. Genetics 80, 495–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Reeder, R. H., Roan, J. G., Dunaway, M., 1983: Spacer Regulation of Xenopus ribosomal gene transcription: competition in oocytes. Cell 35, 449–456.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Rimpau, J., Smith, D. B., Flavell, R. B., 1978: Sequence organisation analysis of the wheat and rye genomes by interspecies DNA/DNA hybridization. J. Molec. Biol. 123, 327–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Rimpau, J., Smith, D. B., Flavell, R. B., 1980: Sequence organization in barley and oats chromosomes revealed by interspecies DNA/DNA hybridization. Heredity 44, 131–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Scherer, S., Davis, R. W., 1980: Recombination of dispersed repeated DNA sequences in yeast. Science 209, 1380–1384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schimke, R, 1982: In: R. Schimke (ed.): Gene amplification, pp. 317–333. New York: Cold Spring Harbour Press.Google Scholar
  58. Shepherd, N. S., Schwarz-Sommer, A, Velspalve, J. B., Gupta, M., Wienand, U., Saedler, H., 1984: Similarity of the Cin 1 repetitive family of Zea mays to eukaryotic transposable elements. Nature 307, 185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Smith, G. P., 1976: Evolution of repeated DNA sequences by unequal crossover. Science 191, 528–535.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Snape, J. W., Flavell, R. B., O’Dell, M., Hughes, W. G., Payne, P. I., 1984: Intrachromosomal mapping of the nucleolar organiser region relative to three marker loci on chromosome IB of wheat (Triticum aestivum) Theoret. and Applied Genetics, in press,.Google Scholar
  61. Stein, D. B., Thompson, W. F., Belford, H. S., 1979: Studies on DNA sequences in the Osmundaceae. J. Mol. Evol. 13, 215–232.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Straus, N., 1972: Reassociation of bean DNA. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Yearbook 71, 257–259.Google Scholar
  63. Sutton, W. D., Geriach, W. L., Schwartz, D., Peacock, W. J., 1984: Molecular analysis of Ds controlling element mutations as the Adh-1 locus of maize. Science 223, 1265–1268.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Szostak, J. W., Wu, R, 1980: Unequal crossing over in the ribosomal DNA of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nature (Lond.) 284, 426–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Thompson, W. F., Murray, M. G., 1980: Sequence organisation in pea and mung bean DNA and a model for genome evolution. In: Davies, D. R, and Hopwood, D. A. (eds.): Fourth John Innes Symposium, pp. 31–45, Norwich, U. K., John Innes Institute.Google Scholar
  66. Thompson, W. F., Murray, M. G., 1981: The nuclear genome: structure and function. In: Strumpf, P. K., and Conn, E. E. (eds.), pp. 10–81. Biochemistry of Plants, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  67. Whitehouse, H. L. K., 1983: Genetic recombination — understanding the mechanisms. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. Yakura, K., Kato, A., Tanifuju, S., 1983: Structural organisation of ribosomal DNA in four Trillium species and Paris verticillate. Plant and Cell Physiol. 24, 1231–1240.Google Scholar
  69. Yakura, K., Tanifuji, S., 1983: Molecular cloning and restriction analysis of EcoRI fragments of Vicia faba rDNA. Plant and Cell Physiol. 24, 1327–1330.Google Scholar
  70. Zimmer, E. A., Martin, S. L., Beveriey, S. M., Kan, Y. W., Wilson, A. C., 1980: Rapid duplication and loss of genes coding for the a chains of hemoglobin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 77, 2158–2162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. B. Flavell
    • 1
  1. 1.Plant Breeding InstituteTrumpington, CambridgeEngland

Personalised recommendations