• H. Fraenkel-Conrat
Part of the Plant Gene Research book series (GENE)


Near the end of the past century a completely new type of transmissible plant pathogen was discovered, at first termed contagium vivum fluidum, then filterable virus, and finally just virus, the agent that caused tobacco mosaic disease: the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Soon many animal and other plant diseases were found to be due to similar agents. What differentiates the viruses from previously known infectious agents, besides their submicroscopic size, was their obligatory parasitic nature: They could only become replicated within the host’s cells. Viruses lack the ability to metabolize and thus to produce the energy and the materials needed for their replication. Their dependence on the host cell makes them a cell-biological phenomenon. That many viruses also interact with the host’s genome became realized later.


Coat Protein Tobacco Mosaic Virus Plant Virus Tobacco Rattle Virus Alfalfa Mosaic Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderer, F. A., Uhlig, H., Weber, E., Schramm, G., 1960: Primary structure of the protein of tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 186 922–925.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Astier-Manifacier, S., Cornuet, P., 1978: Purification et poids moléculaire d’une RNA polymérase RNA = dépendante de Brassica oleracca var. Botrytis. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 287 1043–1046.Google Scholar
  3. Astier-Manifacier, S., Comuet, P., 1971: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Chinese cabbage. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 232 484–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beijerinck, M. W., 1898: Verhandl. Kon. Akad. Wetenschap. Amsterdam 6, 1–24.Google Scholar
  5. Boege, F., Rohde, W., Sanger, H. L., 1982: In vitro transcription of viroid RNA into full-length copies by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from healthy tomato leaf tissue. Bioscience Reports 2 185–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dasgupta, R., Kaesberg, P., 1977: Sequence of an oligonucleotide derived from the 3’ end of each of the four brome mosaic viral RNAs. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 74 4900–4904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diener, T. O., 1981: Are viroids escaped introns? Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 78 5014–5015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Diener, T. O., 1979: Viroids: structure and function. Science 205 859–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Diener, T. O., Raymer, W. B., 1967: Potato spindle tuber virus: A plant virus with properties of a free nucleic acid. Science 158 378–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dorssers, L., Zabel, P., Van der Meer, J., Van Kämmen, A., 1982: Purification of a host-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from cowpea mosaic virus-infected cowpea leaves. Virology 116 236–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1956: The role of the nucleic acid in the reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 78 882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1979, RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of plants. Trends Biochem. Sci. 4, 184–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1983: RNA-dependent RNA polymerases of plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 80, 422–424.Google Scholar
  14. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Singer, B., 1957: Virus reconstitution. II. Combination of protein and nucleic acid from different strains. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 24 540–548.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Singer, B., Williams, R. C., 1957: Infectivity of viral nucleic acid. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 25 87–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Williams, R. C., 1955: Reconstitution of active tobacco mosaic virus from its inactive protein and nucleic acid components. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 41 690–698.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fukuda, M., Meshi, T., Okada, Y., Otsuki, Y, Takebe, I., 1981: Correlation between particle multiplicity and location on virion RNA of the assembly initiation site for viruses of the tobacco mosaic virus group. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 78 4231–4235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gierer, A., Schramm, G., 1956: Infectivity of RNA from tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 177, 702–703.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goelet, P., Lomonossoff, G. P., Butler, P. J. G., Akam, M. E., Gait, M. J., Kam, J., 1982: Nucleotide sequence of tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 79 5818–5822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gross, H. J., Domdey, H., Lossow, C., Jank, P., Raba, M., Alberty, H., Sanger, H., 1978: Nucleotide sequence and secondary structure of potato spindle tuber viroid. Nature 273 203–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hall, T. C., Shih, D. S., Kaesberg, P., 1972: Enzyme-mediated binding of tyrosine to brome-mosaic-virus ribonucleic acid. Biochem. J. 129 969–976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Higgins, T. J. v., Goodwin, P. B., Whitfeld, P. R., 1976: Occurrence of short particles in beans infected with the cowpea strain of TMV. II. Evidence that short particles contain the cistron for coat-protein. Virology 71 486–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hunter, T. R., Hunt, T., Knowland, J., Zimmern, D., 1976: Messenger RNA for the coat protein of tobacco mosaic virus. Nature 260 759–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ikegami, M., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1978: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of tobacco plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 75, 2122–2124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Keith, J., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1975: Tobacco mosaic virus RNA carries 5’-terminal triphosphorylated guanosine blocked by 5’-linked 7-methylguanosine. FEBS Letters 57 31–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leung, D. W., Gilbert, C. W., Smith, R. E., Sasavage, N. L., Clark, Jr., J. M., 1976: Translation of satellite tobacco necrosis virus ribonucleic acid by an invitro system from wheat germ. Biochemistry 15 4943–4950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pelham, H. R. B., 1978: Leaky UAG termination codon in tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Nature 272, 469–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pelham, H. R. B., Jackson, R. J., 1976: An efficient mRNA-dependent translation system from reticulocyte lysates. Eur. J. Biochem. 67 247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rackwitz, H.-R., Rohde, W., Sänger, H. L., 1979: DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II of plant origin transcribes viroid RNA into full-length copies. Nature 291 297–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Richards, K., Jonard, G., Guilley, H., Keith, G., 1977: Leader sequence of 71 nucleotides devoid of G in tobacco mosaic virus RNA. Nature (London) 267 548–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Salvato, M. S., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1977: Translation of tobacco necrosis virus and its satellite in a cell-free wheat germ system. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U. S. A. 74, 2288–2292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shih, D. S., Kaesberg, P., 1976: Translation of the RNAs of brome mosaic virus: the monocistronic nature of RNA 1 and RNA 2. J. Mol. Biol. 103, 77.Google Scholar
  33. Stanley, W. M., 1935: Isolation of a crystalline protein possessing the properties of tobacco mosaic virus. Science 81 644–645.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Takanami, Y., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., 1982: Comparative studies on RNA-dependent RNA polymerases in cucumber mosaic virus-infected cucumber, tobacco, and uninfected tobacco. Biochem. 21 3161–3167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tsugita, A., Gish, D. T., Young, J., Fraenkel-Conrat, H., Knight, C. A., Stanley, W. M., 1960: The complete amino acid sequence of the protein of tobacco mosaic virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 46 1463–1469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Waterworth, H. E., Kaper, J. M., Tousignant, M. E., 1979: CARNA 5, the small cucumber mosaic virus-dependent replicating RNA, regulates disease expression. Science 204 845–847.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yot, P., Pinck, M., Haenni, A.-L., Duranton, H. M., Chapeville, F., 1970: Valine-speciflc tRNA-like structure in turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 67 1345–1352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Fraenkel-Conrat
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyUniversity of California BerkeleyBerkeleyUSA

Personalised recommendations