Advertisement

Gene Organization of the Ti-Plasmid

  • Jacques Hille
  • André Hoekema
  • Paul Hooykaas
  • Rob Schilperoort
Part of the Plant Gene Research book series (GENE)

Abstract

The phenomenon tumor formation on plants has intrigued biologists for a long time. More than 75 years ago, it was reported that a particular type of plant tumor, known as crown gall, was caused by bacteria (Smith and Townsend, 1907). The present taxonomic name of this soil bacterium is Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Crown gall is characterized by unlimited cell proliferations, which may lead to regression or even to death of the plant. The disease and its causative agent have been studied intensively, first to uncover concepts underlying the tumorous state, secondly because it is the cause of losses of economically important plants in Europe (Kerr and Panagopoulos, 1977), North-America (Kennedy and Alcorn, 1980), and Australia (New and Kerr, 1972), and thirdly, more recently, to develop plant gene vectors.

Keywords

Hairy Root Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Agrobacterium Strain Crown Gall Agrobacterium Rhizogenes 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bomhoff, G., Klapwijk, P. M., Kester, H. C. M., Schilperoort, R. A., Hernalsteens, J. P., Schell, J., 1976: Octopine and nopaline synthesis and breakdown genetically controlled by a plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 145, 177–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Braun, A. C., 1943: Studies on tumor inception in the crown-gall disease. Am. J. Bot. 30, 674–677.Google Scholar
  3. Braun, A. C., 1947: Thermal studies on the factors responsible for tumor initiation in crown gall. Am. J. Bot. 34, 234–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Braun, A. C., 1956: The activation of two growth-substance systems accompanying the conversion of normal to tumor cells in crown gall Cancer Res. 16, 53–56.Google Scholar
  5. Braun, A. C., White, P. R., 1943: Bacteriological sterility of tissues derived from secondary crown gall tumors. Phytopathology 33, 85–100.Google Scholar
  6. Breathnach, R., Chambon, P., 1981: Organization and expression of eukaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 50, 349–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Chilton, M.-D., Farrand, S. K., Levin, R. L., Nester, E. W., 1976: RP4 promotion of a large Agrobacterium plasmid which confers virulence. Genetics 83, 609–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Chilton, M.-D., Drummond, M. H., Merlo, D. J., Sciaky, D., Montoya, A. L., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1977: Stable incorporation of plasmid DNA into higher plant cells: the molecular basis of crown gall tumorigenesis. Cell 11, 263–271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chilton, M.-D., Montoya, A. L., Merlo, D. J., Drummond, M. H., Nutter, R., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1978a: Restriction endonuclease mapping of a plasmid that confers oncogenicity upon Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain B 6–806. Plasmid 1, 254–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chilton, M.-D., Drummond, M. H., Merlo, D. J., Sciaky, D., 1978 Highly conserved DNA of Ti-plasmids overlaps T-DNA maintained in plant tumors. Nature 275, 147–149.Google Scholar
  11. Chilton, M.-D., Saiki, R. K., Yadav, N., Gordon, M. P., Quetier, F., 1980: T-DNA from Agrobacterium Ti plasmid is in the nuclear DNA fraction of crown gall tumor cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 4060–4064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Costantino, P., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Den Dulk-Ras, H., Schilperoort, R. A., 1980: Tumor formation and rhizogenicity of Agrobacterium rhizogenes carrying Ti plasmids. Gene 11, 79–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Costantino, P., Mauro, M. L., Micheli, G., Risuleo, G., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1981: Fingerprinting and sequence homology of plasmids from different virulent strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plasmid 5, 170–182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Currier, T. C., Nester, E. W., 1976: Evidence for diverse types of large plasmids in tumor-inducing strains of Agrobacterium. J. Bacteriol. 126, 157 165.Google Scholar
  15. De Greve, H., Decraemer, H., Seurinck, J., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1981: The functional organization of the octopine Agrobacterium tumefaciens plasmid pTiB 6S3. Plasmid 6, 235–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. De Greve, H., Dhaese, P., Seurinck, J., Lemmers, M., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1983: Nucleotide sequence and transcript map of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid encoded octopine synthase gene. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 2, 499–511.Google Scholar
  17. De Picker, A. Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1978: Homologous DNA sequences in different Tiplasmids are essential for oncogenicity. Nature 275, 150–153.Google Scholar
  18. De Picker, A., De Wilde, M., De Vos, G., De Vos, R., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1980: Molecular cloning of overlapping segments of the nopaline Ti-plasmid pTiC58 as a means to restriction endonuclease mapping. Plasmid 3, 193–211.Google Scholar
  19. De Picker, A., Stachel, S., Dhaese, P., Zambryski, P., Goodman, H. M., 1982: Nopaline synthase: transcript mapping and DNA sequence. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1, 561–573.Google Scholar
  20. De Vos, G., De Beuckeleer, M., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1981: Restriction endonuclease mapping of the octopine tumor-inducing plasmid pTiAch 5 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmid 6, 249–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Drummond, M. H., Chilton, M.-D., 1978: Tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids of Agrobacterium share extensive regions of DNA homology. J. Bacteriol. 136, 1178–1183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Drummond, M. H., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., Chilton, M.-D., 1977: Foreign DNA of bacterial plasmid origin is transcribed in crown gall tumours. Nature 269, 535–536.Google Scholar
  23. Ellis, J. G., Murphy, P. J. 1981: Four new opines from crown gall tumours — their detection and properties. Mol. Gen. Genet. 181, 36–43.Google Scholar
  24. Ellis, J. G., Kerr, A., Tempé, J., Petit, A., 1979: Arginine catabolism: a new function of both octopine and nopaline Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium. Mol. Gen. Genet. 173, 263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ellis, J. G., Kerr, A., Petit, A., Tempé, J., 1982a: Conjugal transfer of nopaline and agropine Ti-plasmids. The role of agrocinopines. Mol. Gen. Genet. 186, 269–274.Google Scholar
  26. Ellis, J. G., Murphy, P. J., Kerr, A., 1982b: Isolation and properties of transfer regulatory mutants of the nopaline Ti-plasmid pTiC 58. Mol. Gen. Genet. 186, 275–281.Google Scholar
  27. Engler, G., De Picker, A., Maenhout, R., Villarroel, R., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J. (1981). Physical mapping of DNA base sequence homologies between an octopine and a nopaline Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Mol. Biol. 152, 183–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Firmin, J. L., Fenwick, G. R., 1978: Agropine: a major new plasmid-determined metabolite in crown gall tumours. Nature 276, 842–844.Google Scholar
  29. Garfinkel, D. J., Nester, E. W., 1980: Agrobacterium tumefaciens mutants affected in crown gall tumorigenesis and octopine catabolism. J. Bacteriol. 144, 732–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Garfinkel, D. J., Simpson, R. B., Ream, L. W., White, F. F., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1981: Genetic analysis of crown gall: fine structure map of the T-DNA by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell 27, 143–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gelvin, S. B., Thomashow, M. F., McPherson, J. C., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1982: Sizes and map positions of several plasmid DNA-encoded transcripts in octopine-type crown gall tumors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 79, 76–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Genetello, C., Van Larebeke, N., Holsters, M., De Picker, A., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1977: The Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium as conjugative plasmids. Nature 265, 561–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Goldmann, A., Thomas, D. W., Morel, G., 1969: Sur la structure de la nopaline, métabolite anormale de certaines tumeurs de crown gall. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 268, 852–854.Google Scholar
  34. Gurley, W. B., Kemp, J. D., Albert, M. J., Sutton, D. W., Callis, J., 1979: Transcription of Ti-plasmid derived sequences in the octopine type crown gall tumor lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 76, 2828–2832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hamilton, R. H., Fall, M. Z., 1971: The loss of tumor-initiating ability in Agrobacterium tumefaciens by incubation at high temperature. Experientia 27, 229–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Heidekamp, F., Dirkse, W. G., Hille, J., Van Ormondt, H., Schilperoort, R. A., De Groot, B., 1983: Nucleotide sequence of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens octopine Ti-plasmid encoded tmr gene. Nucl. Ac. Res., 11, 6211–6223.Google Scholar
  37. Hepburn, A. G., Hindley, J., 1979: Regions of DNA sequence homology between an octopine and a nopaline Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 169, 163–172.Google Scholar
  38. Hernalsteens, J. P., De Greve, H., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1978: Mutagenesis by insertion of the drug resistance transposon Tn7 applied to the Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmid 1, 218–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hille, J., Schilperoort, R., 1981: The use of transposons to introduce well-defined deletions in plasmids: possibilities for in vivo cloning. Plasmid 6, 151–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hille, J., Klasen, I., Schilperoort, R., 1982: Construction and application of R-prime plasmids, carrying different segments of an octopine Ti-plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens for complementation of vir genes. Plasmid 7, 107–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hille, J., Van Kan, J., Klasen, I., Schilperoort, R., 1983a: Site-directed mutagenesis in Escherichia coli of a stable R772: Ti cointegrate plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 154, 693–701.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Hille, J., Van Kan, J., Schilperoort, R. 1983: Onc-and vir-genes located on the Tiplasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In: Proceedings of molecular genetics of the bacteria-plant interaction. Pühler, A. (ed.), pp. 223–220, Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  43. Hille, J., Wullems, G., Schilperoort, R., 1983: Non-oncogenic T-region mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens do transfer T-DNA into plant cells. Pl. Mol. Biol., 2, 155–163.Google Scholar
  44. Hille, J., et al.,1983d: in preparation.Google Scholar
  45. Hoekema, A., Hirsch, P. R., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1983 A binary plant vector strategy based on separation of the Vir-and T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. Nature 303, 179–180.Google Scholar
  46. Hoekema, A. Van Haaren, M. J. J., Hille, J., Hoge, J. H. C., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Krens, F. A., Wullems, G. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1983: Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its Ti-plasmid as tools in transformation of plant cells. In: Plant Molecular Biology. Goldberg, R. B. (ed.), New York: Alan R. Liss.Google Scholar
  47. Holsters, M., De Waele, D., De Picker, A., Messens, E., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1978: Transfection and transformation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 163, 181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Holsters, M., Silva, B., Van Vliet, F., Genetello, C., De Block, M., Dhaese, P., De Picker, A., Inzé, D., Engler, G., Vilarroel, R., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1980: The functional organization of the nopaline A. tumefaciens plasmid pTiC 58. Plasmid 3, 212–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hooykaas, P. J. J., 1979: The role of plasmid determined functions in the interactions of Rhizobiaceae with plant cells. A genetic approach, 168 pp. Thesis, Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  50. Hooykaas, P. J. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1983: The molecular genetics of crown gall tumorigenesis. In: Advances in Genetics. Scandalios, J. G. (ed.), New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  51. Hooykaas, P. J. J., Klapwijk, P. M., Nuti, M. P., Schilperoort, R. A., Rörsch, A., 1977: Transfer of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid to avirulent agrobacteria and to Rhizobium ex planta. J. Gen. Microbiol. 98, 477–484.Google Scholar
  52. Hooykaas, P. J. J., Roobol, C., Schilperoort, R. A., 1979: Regulation of the transfer of Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Gen. Microbiol. 110, 99–109.Google Scholar
  53. Hooykaas, P. J. J., Den Dulk-Ras, H., Schilperoort, R. A., 1980: Molecular mechanism of Ti-plasmid mobilization by R-plasmids. Isolation of Ti-plasmids with transposon-insertions in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmid 4, 65–74.Google Scholar
  54. Hooykaas, P. J. J., Den Dulk-Ras, H., Ooms, G., Schilperoort, R. A., 1980: Interactions between octopine and nopaline plasmids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 143, 1295–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Iyer, V. N., Klee, H. J., Nester, E. W. 1982: Units of genetic expression in the virulence region of a plant tumor-inducing plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mol. Gen. Genet. 188, 418–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kennedy, B. W., Alcorn, S. M., 1980: Estimates of U. S. A. crop losses to prokaryotic plant pathogens. Plant Dis. 64, 674–676.Google Scholar
  57. Kerr, A. 1969: Transfer of virulence between isolates of Agrobacterium. Nature 223, 1175–1176.Google Scholar
  58. Kerr, A., 1971: Acquisition of virulence by non-pathogenic isolates of Agrobacterium radiobacter. Physiol. Plant Pathol. 1, 241–246.Google Scholar
  59. Kerr, A., 1972: Biological control of crown gall: seed inoculation. J. appl. Bact. 35, 493–497.Google Scholar
  60. Kerr, A., 1980: Biological control of crown gall through production of agrocin 84. Plant Dis. 64, 25–30.Google Scholar
  61. Kerr, A., Panagopoulos, C. G., 1977: Biotypes of Agrobacterium radiobacter var. tumefaciens and their biological control. Phytopath. Z. 90, 172–179.Google Scholar
  62. Kerr, A., Manigault, P., Tempé, J., 1977: Transfer of virulence in vivo and in vitro in Agrobacterium. Nature 265, 560–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Klapwijk, P. M., 1979: The role of octopine in conjugation and plant tumour formation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Studies on tumour-inducing plasmids. Thesis, Leiden, The Netherlands, 128 pp.Google Scholar
  64. Klapwijk, P. M., Schilperoort, R. A., 1979: Negative control of octopine degradation and transfer genes of octopine Ti-plasmids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 139, 424–431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Klapwijk, P. M., Schilperoort, R. A., 1982: Genetic determination of octopine degradation. In: Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors. Kahl, G., Schell, J. (eds.), pp. 475–495. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  66. Klapwijk, P. M., Scheulderman, T., Schilperoort, R. A., 1978: Coordinated regulation of octopine degradation and conjugative transfer of Ti-plasmids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: evidence for a common regulatory gene and separate operons. J. Bacteriol. 136, 775–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Klee, H. J., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1982: Complementation analysis of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid mutations affecting oncogenicity. J. Bacteriol. 150, 327–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Klee, H. J., White, F. F., Iyer, V. N., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1983: Mutational analysis of the virulence region of an Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmid. J. Bacteriol. 153, 878–883.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Knauf, V. C., Nester, E. W., 1982: Wide host range cloning vectors: a cosmid clone bank of an Agrobacterium Ti-plasmid. Plasmid 8, 45–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Koekman, B. P., Ooms, G., Klapwijk, P. M., Schilperoort, R. A., 1979: Genetic map of an octopine Ti-plasmid. Plasmid 2, 347–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Koekman, B. P., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1980: Localization of the replication control region on the physical map of the octopine Ti-plasmid. Plasmid 4, 184–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Koekman, B. P., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1982: A functional map of the replicator region of the octopine Ti-plasmid. Plasmid 7, 119–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Krens, F. A., Molendijk, L., Wullems, G. J., Schilperoort, R. A., 1982: In vitro trans- formation of plant protoplasts with Ti-plasmid DNA. Nature 296, 72–74.Google Scholar
  74. Ledeboer, A. M., 1978: Large plasmids in Rhizobiaceae. Studies on the transcription of the tumour inducing plasmid from Agrobacterium tumefaciens in sterile crown gall tumour cells, pp. 180, Thesis, University of Leiden, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  75. Leemans, J., Deblaere, R., Willmitzer, L., De Greve, H., Hernalsteens, J. P., Van Montague, M., Schell, J., 1982: Genetic identification of fuctions of TL-DNA transcripts in octopine crown galls. EMBO J. 1, 147–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Liu, S. T., Perry, K. L., Schardl, C. L., Kado, C. I., 1982: Agrobacterium Ti-plasmid indoleacetic acid gene is required for crown gall oncogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 79, 2812–2816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Loper, J. E., Kado, C. I., 1979: Host range conferred by the virulence-specifying plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 139, 591–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Matzke, A. J. M., Chilton, M.-D., 1981: Site-specific insertion of genes into T-DNA of the Agrobacterium tumor-inducing plasmid: An approach to genetic engineering of higher plant cells. J. Mol. Appl. Genet. 1, 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. McKenney, K., Shimatake, H., Court, D., Schmeissner, U., Brady, C., Rosenberg, M., 1981: A system to study promoter and terminator signals recognized by E. coli RNA polymerase. In: Gene amplification and analysis. Vol. 2, pp. 383–415. Chrikjian, J. G., Papas, T. S. (eds.). Elsevier/North Holland.Google Scholar
  80. Ménagé, A., Morel, G., 1964: Sur la présence d’octopine dans les tissus de crown-gall. C. R. Acad. Sci (Paris) 259D, 4795–4796.Google Scholar
  81. Moore, L., Warren, G., Strobel, G., 1979: Involvement of a plasmid in the hairy root-disease of plants caused by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Plasmid 2, 617–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Murai, N., Kemp, J. D., 1982: T-DNA of pTi 15955 from Agrobacterium tumefaciens is transcribed into a minimum of seven polyadenylated RNAs in a sunflower crown gall tumor. Nucl. Ac. Res. 10, 1679–1689.Google Scholar
  83. Murphy, P. J., Tate, M. E., Kerr, A., 1981: Substituents at N6 and C-5’ control selective uptake and toxicity of the adenine-nucleotide bacteriocin, agrocin 84, in agrobacteria. Eu. J. Biochem. 115, 539–543.Google Scholar
  84. New, P. B., Kerr, A., 1971: A selective medium for Agrobacterium radiobacter biotype 2. J. appl. Bact. 34, 233–236.Google Scholar
  85. New, P. B., Kerr, A., 1972: Biological control of crown gall: field observations and glasshouse experiments. J. appl. Bact. 35, 279–287.Google Scholar
  86. Ooms, G., Klapwijk, P. M., Poulis, J. A., Schilperoort, R. A., 1980: Characterization of Tn 904 insertions in octopine Ti-plasmid mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 144, 82–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Ooms, G., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Moolenaar, G., Schilperoort, R. A., 1981: Crown gall plant tumors of abnormal morphology, induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying mutated octopine Ti-plasmids; analysis of T-DNA functions. Gene 14, 33–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ooms, G., Hooykaas, P. J. J., Van Veen, R. J. M., Van Beelen, P., RegensburgTuïnk, A. J. G., Schilperoort, R. A., 1982: Octopine Ti-plasmid deletion mutants of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with emphasis on the right side of the T-region. Plasmid 7, 15–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Panagopoulos, C. G., Psallidas, P. G., 1973: Characteristics of Greek isolates of Agrobacterium tumefaciens (Smith and Townsend) Conn. J. appl. Bact. 36, 233–240.Google Scholar
  90. Petit, A., Tempé, J., 1978: Isolation of Agrobacterium Ti-plasmid regulatory mutants. Mol. Gen. Genet. 167, 147–155.Google Scholar
  91. Petit, A., Delhaye, S., Tempé, J., Morel, G., 1970: Recherches sur les guanidines des tissus de crown gall. Mise en évidence d’une relation biochimique spécifique entre les souches d’ Agrobacterium et les tumeurs qu’elles induisent. Physiol. Veg. 8, 205–213.Google Scholar
  92. Petit, A., Tempé, J., Kerr, A., Holsters, M., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1978: Substrate induction of conjugative activity of Agrobacterium tumefaciens Ti-plasmids. Nature 271, 570–572.Google Scholar
  93. Prakash, R. K., Schilperoort, R. A, 1982: Relationship between nif plasmids of fastgrowng Rhizobium species and Ti-plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 149, 1129–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Ream, L. W., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1983: Multiple mutations in the T-region of the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing plasmid. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 80, 1660–1664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Regier, D. A., Morris, R. O., 1982: Secretion of trans-zeatin by Agrobacterium tumefaciens: a function determined by the nopaline Ti-plasmid. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 104, 1560–1566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Riker, A. J., 1930: Studies on infectious hairy root of nursery apple trees. J. Agr. Res. 41, 507–540.Google Scholar
  97. Risuleo, G., Battistoni, P., Costantino, P., 1982: Regions of homology between tumorigenic plasmids from Agrobacterium rhizogenes and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Plasmid 7, 45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Schilperoort, R. A., Kester, H. C. M., Klapwijk, P. M., Rörsch, A., Schell, J., 1975: Plant tumors induced by A. tumefaciens. A genetic approach. In: Semaine d’étude agriculture et hygiène des plantes. Martens, P. (ed.), pp. 25–35, Gem-blouse, Belgium.Google Scholar
  99. Schröder, G., Schröder, J., 1982: Hybridization selection and translation of T-DNA encoded mRNAs from octopine tumors. Mol. Gen. Genet. 185, 51–55.Google Scholar
  100. Schröder, J., Schröder, G., Huisman, H., Schilperoort, R. A., Schell, J., 1981: The mRNA for lysopine dehydrogenase in plant tumor cells is complementary to a Ti-plasmid fragment FEBS Lett. 129, 166–168.Google Scholar
  101. Smith, E. F., Townsend, C. O., 1907: A plant tumor of bacterial origin. Science 25, 671–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tempé, J., Petit, A., 1982: Opine utilization by Agrobacterium. In: Molecular Biology of Plant Tumors. Kahl, G., Schell, J. (eds.), pp. 451–459, New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  103. Thomashow, M. F., Nutter, R., Montoya, A. L., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1980a: Integration and organization of Ti plasmid sequences in crown gall tumors. Cell 19, 729–739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Thomashow, M. F., Nutter, R., Postle, K., Chilton, M.-D., Blattner, F. R., Powel, A., Gordon, M. P., Nester, E. W., 1980: Recombination between higher plant DNA and the Ti-plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 6448–6452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Thomashow, M. F., Panagopoulos, C. G., Gordon, M. P., Nester E. W., 1980: Host range of Agrobacterium tumefaciens is determined by the Ti plasmid. Nature 283, 794–796.Google Scholar
  106. Thomashow, M. F., Knauf, V. C., Nester, E. W., 1981: The relationship between the limited and wide host range octopine-type Ti plasmids of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 146, 484–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Van Larebeke, N., Engler, G., Holsters, M., Van den Elsacker, S., Zaenen, I., Schilperoort, R. A., Schell, J., 1974: Large plasmid in Agrobacterium tumefaciens essential for crown-gall inducing ability. Nature 252, 169–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Larebeke, N., Genetello, C., Schell, J., Schilperoort, R. A., Hermans, A. K., Hernalsteens, J. P., Van Montagu, M., 1975: Acquisition of tumour-inducing ability by non-oncogenic agrobacteria as a result of plasmid transfer. Nature 255, 742–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Van Larebeke, N., Genetello, G., Hernalsteens, J. P., De Picker, A., Zaenen, I., Messens, E., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1977: Transfer of Ti plasmids between Agrobacterium strains by mobilisation with the conjugative plasmid RP4. Mol. Gen. Genet. 152, 119–124.Google Scholar
  110. Vervliet, G., Holsters, M., Teuchy, H., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1975: Characterization of different plaque-forming and defective temperate phages in Agrobacterium strains.Google Scholar
  111. Watson, B., Currier, T. C., Gordon, M. P., Chilton, M.-D., Nester, E. W., 1975: Plasmid required for virulence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. J. Bacteriol. 123, 255–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. White, F. F., Nester, E. W., 1980a: Hairy root: plasmid encodes virulence traits in Agrobacterium rhizogenes. J. Bacteriol. 141, 1134–1141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. White, F. F., Nester, E. W., 1980: Relationship of plasmids responsible for hairy root and crown gall tumorigenicity. J. Bacteriol. 144, 710–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Willmitzer, L., De Beuckeleer, M., Lemmers, M., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1980: DNA from Ti plasmid present in nucleus and absent from plastids of crown gall plant cells. Nature 287, 359–361.Google Scholar
  115. Willmitzer, L., Schmalenbach, W., Schell, J., 1981: Transcription of T-DNA in octopine and nopaline crown gall tumours is inhibited by low concentrations of aamanitin. Nucl. Ac. Res. 9, 4801–4812.Google Scholar
  116. Willmitzer, L., Simons, G., Schell, J., 1982: The TL-DNA in octopine crown-gall tumours codes for seven well-defined polyadenylated transcripts. EMBO J. 139–146.Google Scholar
  117. Willmitzer, L., Dhaese, P., Schreier, P. H., Schmalenbach, W., Van Montagu, M., Schell, J., 1983: Size, location and polarity of T-DNA encoded transcripts in nopaline crown gall tumors; common transcripts in octopine and nopaline tumors. Cell 32, 1045–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacques Hille
    • 1
  • André Hoekema
    • 1
  • Paul Hooykaas
    • 1
  • Rob Schilperoort
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Molecular BiologyUniversity of LeidenLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations