Patient Examination via the Endolaryngeal Approach: Diagnosis and Therapy

  • Wilbur J. Gould
  • Van L. Lawrence
Part of the Disorders of Human Communication book series (DISORDERS, volume 8)


For a complete examination of the nasopharynx, and then the larynx, including the arytenoids, vestibular and true vocal folds, trachea, hypopharyngeal wall, introitus of the esophagus, the anterior commissure, aryepiglottic folds, vallecula, pyriform sinuses, epiglottis and base of the tongue — one of several indirect laryngoscopic techniques may be utilized. The term “indirect laryngoscopy” is used since these structures are viewed indirectly and not with the eyes of the examiner directly inspecting them. Usually, this is done either by the use of a mirror, to reflect the visual image, or by an optical system using reflected light for visual transmission to obtain an image. In addition to using it for diagnostic procedures, some laryngologists use indirect laryngoscopy to assist in the performance of surgical procedures (Fig. 12).


Vocal Fold Anterior Commissure Direct Laryngoscopy Pyriform Sinus Patient Examination 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wilbur J. Gould
    • 1
  • Van L. Lawrence
    • 2
  1. 1.Vocal Dynamics LaboratoryLenox Hill HospitalNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.MacGregor Medical AssociationHoustonUSA

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