Sialic Acids pp 173-193 | Cite as

Histochemistry of Sialic Acids

  • Charles F. A. Culling
  • Philip E. Reid
Part of the Cell Biology Monographs book series (CELLBIOL, volume 10)


The aim of this chapter will be to escort the reader through the maze of histochemical methodology available for the location and identification of sialic acids and their variants in tissue sections. We shall confine most of our discussion to those forms of sialic acid which can be demonstrated histochemically, the methodology by which they may be differentiated and the degree of specificity which may be achieved when using such methods. We shall endeavour to give both the practical and theoretical reasons for the methodology we advocate, and support such reasoning both by our personal research experience and that published in the literature. Areas which are still undefined will be delineated as such, although suggestions for their elucidation may be advanced.


Sialic Acid Alcian Blue Sialic Acid Residue Vicinal Diol Schiff Reagent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashbel, R., Seligman, A. M., 1949: Endocrinology 44, 563–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barger, J. D., DE Lamater, E.D.,1948: Science 108,121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buscher, H.-P., Casals-Stenzel, J., Schauer, R., 1974: Eur. J. Biochem. 50, 71–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Casals-Stenzel, J., Buscher, H.-P., Schauer, R., 1975: Anal. Biochem. 65, 507–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooper, J. H., Durning, R. G., 1981: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 29, 1445–1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Culling, C. F. A., 1974: A Handbook of Histopathological and Histochemical Techniques. 3rd ed. London: Butterworth.Google Scholar
  7. —Reid, P. E., 1977: Histochem. J. 9, 781–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. —1980: J. Microscopy 119, 415–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. —Dunn, W. L., 1971: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 19, 654–662.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. —Clay, M. G., 1974a: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 826–831.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Culling, C. F. A., Reid, P. E., Dunn, W. L., 1974b: Stain Technology 49, 317–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. —Burton, J. D., Dunn, W. L., 1975: J. Clin. Path. 28, 656–658.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. —Dunn, W. L., 1976: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 24, 1225–1230.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. —Worth, A. J., DUNN, W. L., 1977a: J. Clin. Path. 30, 1056–1062.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. —Dunn, W. L., 1977b: J. Clin. Path. 31, 1063–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. —1979: J. Clin. Path. 32, 1272–1277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Culling, C. F. A., Worth, A. J., 1981: In: Meth. Achiev. Exp. Pathol. (Jasmin, G., Cantin, M., eds.). Vol. 10, pp.73–100. Basel: S.Karger.Google Scholar
  18. Dawson, P. A., Patel, J., Filipe, M. I., 1978: Histochem. J. 10, 559–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Drzeniek, R., 1973: Histochem. J. 5, 271–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fenger, C., Filipe, M. I., 1977: Acta Path. Microbiol. Scand. A85, 273–285.Google Scholar
  21. Filipe, M. I., 1979: Invest. Cell Path. 2, 195–216.Google Scholar
  22. —Branfoot, A. C., 1976: In: Current Topics in Pathology (Morson, B. C., ed.), pp. 143–178. Berlin-Heidelberg-NewYork: Springer.Google Scholar
  23. —Cooke, K. B., 1974: J. Clin. Path. 27, 315–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. —Fenger, C., 1979: Histochem. J. 11, 277–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Geyer, G., 1962 : Acta Histochem. 14, 284–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Haverkamp, J., Schauer, R., Wember, M., Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., 1975: Z. Physiol. Chem. 356, 1575–1583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kamerling, J. P., Vliegenthart, J. F. G., Versluis, C., Schauer, R., 1975: Carbohyd. Res. 41, 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kantor, T. G., Schubert, M., 1957: J. Amer. Chem. Soc. 79, 152–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kelly, J. W., Bloom, C. D., Scott, J. E., 1963: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 11, 791–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Korhonen, L. K., 1967: Acta Histochem. 26, 80–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Lev, R., Spicer, S. S., 1964: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12, 309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lillie, R. D., Pizzolato, P., 1972: Stain Technology 47, 13–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. —Jirge, S. K., 1975: Histochem. 41, 249–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Neuberger, A., Ratcliffe, W. A., 1972: Biochem. J. 129, 683–693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. —1973: Biochem. J. 133, 623–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Quintarelli, G., 1961: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 9, 176–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. —1963: Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 106, 339–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. —Scott, J. E., DELLOVO, M. C., 1964: Histochemie 4, 99–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Reid, P. E., Culling, C. F. A., 1980: J. Histotechnol. 3, 82–90.Google Scholar
  40. —DUNN, W. L., 1973: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 21, 473–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. REID, P. E., CULLING, C. F. A., 1974: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 22, 986–991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. —TSANG, WAI-CHIU, RAMEY, C. W., CLAY, M. G., 1975a: Can. J. Biochem. 53, 388–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. —DUNN, W. L., CLAY, M. G., 1975 b: Can. J. Biochem. 53, 1328–1332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. —1976: Histochemistry 46, 203–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. —CLAY, M. G., 1977: Can. J. Biochem. 55, 493–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. REID, P. E., CULLING, C. F. A., DUNN, W. L., 1978a: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 26, 187–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. REID, P. E., CULLING, C. F. A., CLAY, M. G., RAMEY, C. W., 1978b: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 26, 1033–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. —RAMEY, C. W., DUNN, W. L., MAGIL, A. B., CLAY, M. G., 1980: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 28, 217–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. ROBERTS, G. P., 1977: Histochem. J. 9, 97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. ROGERS, C. M., COOKE, K. B., FILIPE, M. I., 1978: Gut 19, 587–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. SCHAUER, R., FAILLARD, H., 1968: Z. Physiol. Chem. 349, 961–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. SCHMITZ-MOORMAN, P., 1969: Histochemie 20, 78–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. SCOTT, J. E., DORLING, J., 1965: Histochemie 5, 221–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. —QUINTARELLI, G., DELLOVO, M. C., 1964: Histochemie 4, 73–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. SHARON, N., 1977: Scient. American 236, 108–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. SPICER, S. S., 1960: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 8, 18–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. —1961: Amer. J. Clin. Path. 36, 393–407.Google Scholar
  58. —1965: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 13, 211–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. —MEYER, D. B., 1960: Amer. J. Clin. Path. 33, 453–460.Google Scholar
  60. —WARREN, L., 1960: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 8, 135–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. SORVARI, T. E., LAUREN, P. A., 1973: Histochem. J. 5, 405–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. S—STOWARD, P. J., 1970: Histochemie 24, 106–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. STOWARD, P. J., 1967: J. Roy. Micros. Soc. 87, 77–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. —1968: J. Roy. Micros. Soc. 88, 119–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. —SPICER, S. S., MILLER, R. L., 1980: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 28, 979–990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. TERNER, J. Y., 1964: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 12, 504–511.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. VAN DUIJN, P., 1956: J. Histochem. Cytochem. 4, 55–62.Google Scholar
  68. VEH, R. W. , CORFIELD, A. P., SCHAUER, R., ANDRES, K. H., 1979: In: Glycoconjugates (SCHAUER, R., BOER, P., BUDDECKE, E., KRAMER, M. F., VLIEGENTHART, J. F. G., WIEGANDT, H., eds.), pp. 193–194. Stuttgart: G.Thieme.Google Scholar
  69. Vilter, V., 1968: Ann. Histochim. 13, 205–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Weber, P., Harrison, F. W., Hof, L., 1975: Histochemie 45, 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Wood, W. S., Culling, C. F. A., 1975: Arch. Path. 99, 442–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles F. A. Culling
    • 1
  • Philip E. Reid
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations