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Sialic Acids pp 263-305 | Cite as

Biological Significance of Sialic Acids

  • Werner Reutter
  • Eckart Köttgen
  • Christian Bauer
  • Wolfgang Gerok
Part of the Cell Biology Monographs book series (CELLBIOL, volume 10)

Abstract

Sialic acids are essential constituents of many glycoproteins, glycopeptides and glycolipids. This widespread occurrence in glycoconjugates of different origin indicates that a variety of biological functions should be associated with this sugar. There are vahd indications that siahc acids influence or even determine the recognition of low and high molecular-weight compounds, the action of certain hormones, physicochemical and catalytic properties of enzymes, hemostasis, cellular adhesiveness, antigenicity, transport processes and synaptic transmission. Despite this apparently heterogenous spectrum of biological actions, four main functions—according to the concept of Schauer (1982)—can be attributed to sialic acid: (1) Endowment of glycoconjugates and cellular membranes with a negative charge, (2) Influence on the macromolecular structure of certain glycoproteins, (3) Information transfer, (4) Protection of glycoconjugates and cells from recognition and degradation. This rather physicochemical classification could be of use when starting to elucidate the biological significance of sialoglycoconjugates. Reviews on siahc acids have recently been published by Rosenberg and Schengrund 1976, Neufeld and Ashwell 1980, and Schauer 1982. The aim of this contribution, however, is to emphazise the important role of sialic acids in the occurrence of pathobiochemical alterations found in animals and human beings.

Keywords

Sialic Acid Biological Significance Wheat Germ Agglutinin Sialic Acid Residue Carbohydrate Residue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Reutter
    • 1
  • Eckart Köttgen
    • 2
  • Christian Bauer
    • 1
  • Wolfgang Gerok
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Molekularbiologie und Biochemie, Freie Universität BerlinDahlemGermany
  2. 2.Medizinische Klinik der UniversitätFreiburg i. Br.Federal Republic of Germany

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