Advertisement

Abstract

It is the major object of this review to present the presently known naturally occurring terpenoids and aromatic compounds of the Hepaticae. Furthermore, the biological activity of the isolated compounds and chemosystematics of the Hepaticae are summarized.

Keywords

Chemical Constituent Absolute Configuration Sesquiterpene Lactone Tetrahedron Letter Bornyl Acetate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Allsopp, A.: The Sugars and Non-volatile Organic Acids of Some Archegoniates: A Survey Using Paper Chromatography. J. exp. Bot. 2, 121 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andersen, N. H., P. Bissonette, C.-B. Liu, B. Schunk, Y. Ohta, C. W. Tseng, A. Moore, and S. Huneck: Sesquiterpenes of Nine European Liverworts from the Genera, Anastrepta, Bazzania, Jungermannia, Lepidozia and Scapania. Phytochem. 16, 1731 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Andersen, N. H., C. R. Costin, C. M. Kramer, Y. Ohta, and S. Huneck: Sesquiterpenes of Barbilophozia Species. Phytochem. 12, 2709 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andersen, N. H., and S. Huneck: Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons of Bazzania trilobata. Phytochem. 12, 1818 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andersen, N. H., Y. Ohta, C.-B. Liu, C. M. Kramer, K. Allison, and S. Huneck: Sesquiterpenes of Thalloid Liverworts of the Genera Conocephalum, Lunularia, Metzgeria and Riccardia. Phytochem. 16, 1727 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Andersen, N. H., Y. Ohta, A. Moore, and C. W. Tseng: Anastreptene, A Commonly Encountered Sesquiterpene of Liverworts (Hepaticae). Tetrahedron 34, 41 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andersen, N. H., B. Shunk, and C. R. Costin: (+)-α-Selinene, and Enantiomeric Eudesmane from Chiloscyphus polyanthus (L.) Corda. Experientia 29, 645 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Andersen, N. H., C. W. Tseng, A. Moore, and Y. Ohta: The Structure of Isobarbatene, the Stable Tricyclic End-point of the Bazzanene-Barbatene Sesquiterpenes. Tetrahedron 34, 47 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arai, Y., T. Kamikawa, and T. Kobuta: A Convenient Synthesis of Lunularic Acid. Tetrahedron Letters 1972, 1615.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arai, Y., T. Kamikawa, T. Kubota, Y. Masuda, and R. Yamamoto: Synthesis and Properties of Lunularic Acid. Phytochem. 12, 2279 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Asakawa, Y.: Biologically Active Substances of Bryophytes. Scientific American (Japanese Edition) 6, 46 (1977).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Asakawa, Y.: Comparative Study of Chemical Constituents Found in the Thalli and Female Receptacles of Wiesnerella denudata and Conocephalurn conicum. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 48, 277 (1980).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Asakawa, Y.: Biologically Active Substances Obtained from Bryophytes. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 50, 123 (1981).Google Scholar
  14. 13a.
    Asakawa, Y.: Terpenoids and Aromatic Compounds as Chemosystematic Indicators in Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. XIII International Botanical Congress. Sydney. Symposium Papers, P. 148 (1981).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Aratani: Occurrence of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Frullania and Diplophyllum. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 41, 377 (1976).Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Aratani: Sesquiterpenes of Porella vernicosa (Hepaticae). Bull. Soc. Chim. France 1976, 1469.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Aratani: Physiologically Active Substances Found in Bryophytes. Misc. Bryol. et Lichenol. 7, 144 (1976).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Asakawa, Y., T. Aratani, and G. Ourisson: Pungent Component of Porella vernicosa and Mossy Odor of Frullania. Misc. Bryol. et Lichenol. 7, 99 (1976).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Asakawa, Y., C. Benezra, G. Ducombs, J. Foussereau, J.-C. Muller, and G. Ourisson: Crosssensitization between Frullania and Laurus nobilis. Arch. Derm. 110, 957 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Asakawa, Y., S. Hattori, M. Mizutani, N. Tokunaga, and T. Takemoto: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes III. Terpenoids of the Primitive Hepaticae, Takakia and Haplomitrium. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 46, 77 (1979).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Asakawa, Y., S. Huneck, M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, and S. Suire: Mono- and Sesquiterpenes from Porella arborisvitae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 46, 163 (1979).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Asakawa, Y., H. Inoue, M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpenoids of Fourteen Plagiochila Species. Phytochem. 19, 2623 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Asakawa, Y., E. Kusube, T. Takemoto, and C. Suire: New Bibenzyls from Radula complanata. Phytochem. 17, 2115 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, and C. Suire: Pinguisane-type Sesquiterpenes from Ptilidium pulcherrimum. Phytochem. 20, 1427 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, and R. Takeda: Mono- and Sesquiterpenoids of Conocephalum supradecompositum. Phytochem. 20, 1423 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, and T. Takemoto: Mono- and Sesquiterpenes from Wiesnerella denudata. Phytochem. 19, 567 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 25a.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpenoids of Canadian and Colombian Hepaticae. 25th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Yamaguchi, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 89 (1981).Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, M. Mizutani, H. Inoue, C. Suire, and S. Huneck: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes VII. The Distribution of Terpenoids and Aromatic Compounds in Some European and Japanese Hepaticae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 50, 107 (1981).Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, M. Toyota, S. Hattori, and G. Ourisson: Terpenoids and Bibenzyls of 25 Liverworts Frullania Species. Phytochem. 20, 2187 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 28.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, M. Toyota, C. Suire, T. Takemoto, H. Inoue, S. Hattori, and M. Mizutani: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes VIII. The Distribution of Terpenoids and Aromatic Compounds in Japanese Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 50, 165 (1981).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Matsuda, M. Toyota, C. Suire, T. Takemoto, and S. Hattori: Phylogenetic Evolution of the Hepaticae using by Chemical Character. 25th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Yamaguchi, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 92 (1981).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Asakawa, Y., J.-C. Muller, G. Ourisson, J. Foussereau, and G. Ducombs: Nouvelles Lactones Sesquiterpéniques de Frullania (Hépaticae). Isolement, Structures, Propriétés Allergisantes. Bull. Soc. Chim. France 1976, 1465.Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Asakawa, Y., G. Ourisson, and T. Aratani: New Sesquiterpene Lactones and Alde-hyde of Frullania tamarisci subsp. obscura ( Hepaticae ). Tetrahedron Letters 1975, 3957.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Asakawa, Y., G. Ourisson, and T. Aratani Allergy Induced Substances of Frullania. Misc. Bryol. et Lichenol. 7, 96 (1976).Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Asakawa, Y., C. Suire, M. Toyota, N. Tokunaga, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, and M. Mizutani: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes V. The Distribution of Terpenoids and Aromatic Compounds in European and Japanese Hepaticae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 48, 285 (1980).Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Asakawa, Y., C. Suire, M. Toyota, N. Tokunaga, R. Matsuda, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, and M. Mizutani: Chemosystematics of Jungermanniales, Marchantiales and Metzgeriales. 24th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential oils and Aromatics. Koriyama, Japan. Symposium papers, P. 32 (1980).Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    Asakawa, Y., Z. Taira, M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, W. Herz, and T. Sakai: Sesquiterpene Lactones of Eremanthus incanus and Porella japonica. Crystal Structure and Stereochemistry of Eregoyazidin. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 46, 4602 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 36.
    Asakawa, Y., R. Takeda, M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Bibenzyls from Radula tokiensis and R. japonica. Phytochem. 20, 858 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 37.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpene Lactones and Heterocyclic Compounds of Bryophyta. Heterocycles 8, 563 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 38.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Takemoto: Chemical Constituents of Trichocolea, Plagiochila and Porella. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 335 (1978).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Takemoto: Le Diterpénoid du Goût Piquant de Pellia endiviaefolia. Phytochem. 17, 153 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 40.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpene Lactones of Conocephalum conicum. Phytochem. 18, 285 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 41.
    Asakawa, Y., and T. Takemoto: unpublished results.Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Asakawa, Y., T. Takemoto, M. Toyota, and T. Aratani: Sacculatal and ïsosacculatal, Two New Exceptional Diterpenedials from the Liverwort, Trichocoleopsis sacculata. Tetrahedron Letters 1977, 1407.Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Asakawa, Y., K. Takikawa, M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpenoids and Isoprenyl Bibenzyls of Two Radula species. 25th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Yamaguchi, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 86 (1981).Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    Asakawa, Y., K. Tanikawa, and T. Aratani: New Substituted Bibenzyls of Frullania brittoniae subp. truncatifolia. Phytochem. 15, 1057 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 45.
    Asakawa, Y., N. Tokunaga, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, M. Mizutani, and C. Suire: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes IV. The Distribution of Terpenoids and Aromatic Compounds in Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 47, 153 (1980).Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Asakawa, Y., N. Tokunaga, M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, M. Mizutani, and C. Suire: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes II. The Distribution of Terpenoids in Hepaticae and Anthocerotae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 46, 67 (1979).Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Asakawa, Y., N. Tokunaga, M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, and C. Suire: Chemosystematics of Bryophytes I. The Distribution of Terpenoids of Bryophytes. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 45, 395 (1979).Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Aratani: (+)-Bornyl Acetate from Conocephalum conicum. Proc. Bryol. Soc. Japan 1, 155 (1976).Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Aratani: Isolement de l’Acetate de Borneol du Conocephalum conicum. Phytochem. 15, 2025 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 50.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Aratani: Un Nouvel Alcool Sesquiterpénique de Porella densifolia ( Hépatique ). Tetrahedron Letters 1976, 3619.Google Scholar
  53. 51.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, M. Kano, and T. Takemoto: Dehydropinguisanin, Dehydropinguisenol and Pinguisenal, Three Pinguisane-type Sesquiterpenes from Trocholejeunea sandvicensis. Phytochem. 19, 2651 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 52.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, Z. Taira, T. Takemoto, M. Kido, and Y. Ichikawa: New Sesquiterpenes of Porellaceae, Plagiochilaceae and Dilaenaceae. 24th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Koriyama, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 221 (1980).Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, Z. Taira, T. Takemoto, M. Kido, and Y. Ichikawa: X-Ray Crystal Structure of (+)-Crispatanolide, a Novel Eudesmane type Sesquiterpene δ-Lactone from Makinoa crispata. Chem. Commun. 1980, 1232.Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, R. Takeda, C. Suire, and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpenoids of Riccardia and Pallavicinia Species. Phytochem. 20, 725 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Biologically Active Substances of Bryophytes. Proc. Soc. Japan 2, 78 (1978).Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Plagiochilide et Plagiochiline A, Secoaromadendrane-type Sesquiterpénes de la Mousse, Plagiochila yokogurensis ( Plagiochilaceae ). Tetrahedron Letters 1978, 1553.Google Scholar
  59. 57.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: New Aromatic Esters of the Liverworts, Trichocolea tomentella. Experientia 34, 155 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 58.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: New Bibenzyls of the Liverwort, Radula variabilis. Experientia 34, 971 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 59.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpenes of Porella Species. Phytochem. 17, 457 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 60.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: La Plagiochiline A et Plagiochiline B, Les Sesquiterpénes du Type Secoaromadendrane de la Mousse, Plagiochila hattoriana. Phytochem. 17, 1794 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 61.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Seven New Bibenzyls and a Dihydrochalcone from Radula variabilis. Phytochem. 17, 2005 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 62.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: New Diterpenes from Porella perrottetiana. Phytochem. 18, 1681 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 63.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Four New Sacculatane-type Diterpenoids from Trichocoleopsis sacculata and Pellia endiviifolia. Phytochem. 19, 1799 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 64.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Three Ent-secoaromadendrane-type Sesquiterpene Hemiacetals and a Bicyclogermacrene from Plagiochila ovalifolia and Plagiochila yokogurensis. Phytochem. 19, 2141 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 65.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Xwo New Guaiane-type Sesquiterpene Lactones and Their Related Sesquiterpene Lactones from Porella japonica. Phytochem. 20, 257 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 66.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, H. Fujiki, and T. Sugimura: Biological Activities of Hepaticae. 24th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Koriyama, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 196 (1980).Google Scholar
  69. 66a.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, H. Fujiki, and T. Sugimura: Biologically Active Substances Isolated from Liverworts. Planta Medica 39, 233 (1980).Google Scholar
  70. 67.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, S. Hattori, M. Mizutani, and C. Suire: Chemical Approaches to Systematics of Hepaticae. Proc. Bryol. Soc. Japan 2, 172 (1980).Google Scholar
  71. 68.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, I. Kubo, and K. Nakanishi: Insect Antifeedant Secoaromadendrane-type Sesquiterpenes from Plagiochila Species. Phytochem. 19, 2147 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 69.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, and R. Mues: Aromatic Esters and Terpenoids of the Liverworts. Trichocolea, Neotrichocolea and Trichocoleopsis Species. Phytochem. 20, 2695 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 70.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, and C. Suire: Pinguisanin, Pinguisanolide and β-Pinguisenediol, Three New Pinguisane-type Sesquiterpenes from Porella platyphylla. Phytochem. 18, 1349 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 71.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, and C. Suire: Plagiochiline C, D, E and F, Novel Secoaromadendrane-type Sesquiterpene Hemiacetals from Plagiochila asplenioides and Plagiochila semidecurrens. Phytochem. 18, 1355 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 72.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, T. Takemoto, and C. Suire: Plagiochiline C, D, E and F, Novel: Pungent Sesquiterpene Lactones of European Liverworts, Chiloscyphus polyanthus and Diplophyllum albicans. Phytochem. 18, 1007 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 73.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, M. Uemoto, and T. Aratani: Pungent Component of Porella gracillima and P. fauriei-Valuable Old Specimens. Misc. Bryol. et Lichenol. 7, 121 (1976).Google Scholar
  77. 74.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Toyota, M. Uemoto, and T. Aratani: Sesquiterpenes of Six Porella Species. Phytochem. 15, 1929 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 75.
    Asakawa, Y., M. Uemoto, K. Tanikawa, and T. Aratani: Sesquiterpenes of Frullania. 20th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Akita, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 42 (1976).Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    Asakawa, Y., A. Yamamura, T. Waki, and T. Takemoto: Caespitenone, a New Cyclopropanoid Pseudoguaiane and Ent-sesquiterpenes from Porella Species. Phytochem. 19, 603 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 77.
    Baker, P. M., C. C. Fortes, E. G. Fortes, G. Gazzinelli, B. Gilbert, J. N. C. Lopes, J. Pellegrino, T. C. B. Tomassini, and W. Vichnewiski: Chemoprophylactic Agents in Schistosonaiasis: Eremanthine, Costunolide, α-Cyclocostunolide and Bisabolol. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 24, 853 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 78.
    Barnes, C. S., and J. W. Loder: The Structure of Polygodial: A New Sesquiterpene Dialdehyde from Polygonum hydropiper. Aust. J. Chem. 15, 322 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 79.
    Benes, I., V. Benesova, and V. Herout: Ent-kaurene Diterpenoids from the Liverwort Jungermannia sphaerocarpa Hook. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 42, 1229 (1977).Google Scholar
  83. 80.
    Benes, I., N. Beizaee, T. Vanek, J. Vana, and V. Herout: Campesteryl Behanate, A Chemical Characters of the Liverwort Genus Calypogeia. Phytochem. 20, 2438 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 81.
    Benesova, V.: (R)-(—)-α-Cuparenone from Mannia fragrans (Balbis) Frye et Clark. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 41, 3812 (1976).Google Scholar
  85. 82.
    Benesova, V., I. Benes, H. M. Chau, and V. Herout: Diterpenoids from Liverworts. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 40, 658 (1975).Google Scholar
  86. 83.
    Benesova, V., H. M. Chau, and V. Herout: Sesquiterpenes and Other Components of Mylia taylorii. Phytochem. 12, 211 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 84.
    Benesova, V., and V. Herout: Plant Substances. XXXII. Isolation and the Structure of Pellepiphyllin, 2-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-4′-methoxydihydrostilbene from Liverwort Pellia epiphylla (L.). Dum. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 35, 1926 (1970).Google Scholar
  88. 85.
    Benesova, V., and V. Herout: Plant Substances. XXXIII. The Presence of Pellepiphyllin in the Liverwort Pellia neesiana (Gottsche) Limpr.; Its Absence in Pellia epiphylla (L.) Dum. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 37, 1764 (1972).Google Scholar
  89. 86.
    Benesova, V., and V. Herout: Components of Liverworts. Their Chemical Structures and Biological Activity.Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 355 (1978).Google Scholar
  90. 87.
    Benesova, V., V. Herout, and F. Sorm: Plant Substances. XXX. Components of Liverworts (Hepaticae) Aneura pinguis (L.) Dum., Riccardia sinuata (Hook.) Trev., R. incurvata Lindb. and Conocephalum conicum (L.) Underw. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 34, 1810 (1969).Google Scholar
  91. 88.
    Benesova, V., P. Sedmera, V. Herout, and F. Sorm: On Terpenes. CCXXIV. The Structure of Myliol, a Tetracyclic Sesquiterpene Alcohol from the Liverwort Mylia taylorii (Hook.) Gray. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 38, 1084 (1973).Google Scholar
  92. 89.
    Benesova, V., P. Sedmera, V. Herout, and F. Sorm: The Structure of a Tetracyclic Sesquiterpenic Alcohol from Liverwort Myliataylorii ( Hook.) Gray. Tetrahedron Letters 1971, 2679.Google Scholar
  93. 90.
    Benesova, V., M. Streibl, H. M. Chau, I. Benes, and K. Konecny: Plant Substances. XXXV. On Natural Waxes. XXI. Higher Alkanes and Wax Esters of Some Liverworts. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 37, 3090 (1972).Google Scholar
  94. 91.
    Benesova, V., Z. Samek, V. Herout, and F. Sorm: On Terpenes. CXCVIII. Isolation and Structure of Pinguisone from Aneura pinguis (L.) Dum. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 34, 582 (1969).Google Scholar
  95. 92.
    Benesova, V., Z. Samek, V. Herout, and F. Sorm: Plant Substances. XXIX. Isolation and Structure of Two New Indole Alkaloids from Riccardia sinuata (Hook). Trev. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 34, 1807 (1969).Google Scholar
  96. 93.
    Benesova, V., Z. Samek, and S. Vasickova: Structure of the Sesquiterpenic Lactone Diplophyllolide and Other Components from Diplophyllum albicans (L.) Dum. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 40, 1966 (1975).Google Scholar
  97. 94.
    Bohlmann, F., and U. Fritz: Neue Diterpene und Acetylen Verbindungen aus Nidorella- Arten. Phytochem. 17, 1769 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 95.
    Bohlmann, F., and E. Hoffmann: Cannabigerolähnliche Verbindungen aus Helichrysum umbraculigerum. Phytochem. 18, 1371 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 96.
    Bourgeois, G., and C. Suire: Les Essences Extraites du Thalle des Hépatiques. III. P.ésence de Guaiazulène chez Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda (Metzgériales) et Absence chez P. fabbroniana Raddi (1). Rev. Bryol. Lichenol. 43, 343 (1977).Google Scholar
  100. 97.
    Bricker, C., and W. T. Doyle: Cell-wall Carbohydrates in the Liverworts Sphaerocarpus donnellii. Amer. J. Bot. 51, 666 (1964).Google Scholar
  101. 98.
    Büchi, G., and P. Chu: Synthesis of Gymnomitrol. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 6767 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 99.
    Bucke, C., R. M. Leech, M. Hallaway, and R. A. Morton: The Taxonomic Distribution of Plastoquinone and Tocopherolquinone and their Intracellular distribution in Leaves of Vicia faba L. Biochem. Biophys. Acta 112, 19 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 100.
    Caine, D., and G. Hasenhuettl: The Total Synthesis of dl-Yomogin. Tetrahedron Letters 1975, 743.Google Scholar
  104. 101.
    Caldicott, A. B., and G. Eglinton: Cutin Acids from Bryophytes: A-1 Hydroxyalkanoic Acid in Two Liverwort Species. Phytochem. 15, 1139 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 102.
    Campbell, E. O., K. R. Markham, N. A. Moore, L. J. Porter, and J. W. Wallace: Taxonomic and Phylogenetic Implications of Comparative Flavonoid Chemistry of Species in the Family Marchantiaceae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 45, 185 (1979).Google Scholar
  106. 103.
    Canónica, L., A. Corbella, P. Gariboldi, G. Jommi, J. Krepinsky, G. Ferrari, and C. Casagrande: Sesquiterpenoids of Cinnamosma fragrans Bâillon. Structure of Cinnamolide, Cinnamosmolide and Cinnamodial. Tetrahedron 25, 631 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 104.
    Chetty, G. L., and Sukh DEV: Ketones from “Mayur pankhi”: Some New Cuparene- based Sesquiterpenoids. Tetrahedron Letters 1964, 73.Google Scholar
  108. 105.
    Cimino, G.: A Survey of Sesquiterpenoids from Marine Sponges. In: Marine Natural Products Chemistry (Faulkner, D. J., and W. H. Fenical, eds.). P. 61. New York: Plenum Press. 1977.Google Scholar
  109. 106.
    Claude-Lafontaine, A., M. Rouillard, J. Cassan, and M. Azzaro: Contribution à l’Étude des Constituants de l’Huile Essentielle de Cascarille. Bull. Soc. Chim. France 1973, 2866.Google Scholar
  110. 107.
    Coates, R. M., S. K. Shah, and R. W. Mason: Stereoselective Synthesis of (+)- Gymnomitrol. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 6765 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 108.
    Connolly, J. D., A. E. Harding, and I. M. S. Thornton: Gymnomitrol, a Novel Tricyclic Sesquiterpenoid from Gymnomitrion obtusum (Lindb.) Pears. (Hepaticae). Chem. Commun. 1972, 1320.Google Scholar
  112. 109.
    Connolly, J. D., A. E. Harding, and I. M. S. Thornton: Gymnomitrol and Related Sesquiterpenoids from the Liverwort Gymnomitrion obtusum (Lindb.) Pears. (Hepaticae). A Novel Tricyclic Skeleton. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I 1974, 2487.Google Scholar
  113. 110.
    Connolly, J. D., and I. M. S. Thornton: Ent-kaurene Diterpenoids from Solenostoma triste (Nees) K. Mull. (Hepaticae). J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I 1973, 736.Google Scholar
  114. 111.
    Connolly, J. D., and I. M. S. Thornton: Sesquiterpenoid Lactones from the Liverwort Frullania tamarisci. Phytochem. 12, 631 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 112.
    Corbella, A., A. Gariboldi, G. Jommi, F. Orsini, A. Demarco, and A. Immirzi: Structure and Absolute Stereochemistry of Pinguisone. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I 1974, 1875.Google Scholar
  116. 113.
    Das, V. S. R., and M. P. Rao: Non-volatile Organic Acids in Some Liverworts. Nature 198, 970 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Das, V. S. R., and M. P. Rao: Mannuronic Acid in the Cell Wall of Riccardia, a Jungermannialean Liverwort. Current Sci. 35, 20 (1966).Google Scholar
  118. 115.
    Das, V. S. R., and M. P. Rao: Cell Wall Sugars of the Liverwort Riccardia. Indian J. Exp. Biol. 5, 193 (1967).Google Scholar
  119. 116.
    de Greef, J., and J. Fredericq: Photomorphogenic and Chlorophyll Studies in the Bryophytes Marchantia polymorpha. II. Photobiological Responses to Terminal Irradiations with Different Red/Far-red Ratios. Physiol. Plantarum 22, 462 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 117.
    Domínguez, X. A., J. Marrioquin, and E. Cardenas: Medical Plants from Mexico Part XXII. Isolation of Zaluzanin-C. Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactone from Zaluzania parthenolides. Planta Medica 28, 89 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 118.
    Doskotch, R. W., and F. S. El-Feraly: The Structure of Tulipinolide and Epitulipinolide. Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactones from Liriodendron tulipifera L. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 35, 1928 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 119.
    Douin, R.: Pigments Chlorophylliens des Bryophytes. C. roténoïdes des Andreaeales des Sphagnales, et des Hépatiques. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 246, 1248 (1958).Google Scholar
  123. 120.
    Ehret, G., and G. Ourisson: L’ α-Gurjunene, Structure et Configuration. Isomerisation de L’a-gurjunene. Tetrahedron 25, 1785 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 121.
    Fredericq, H., and J. DE Greef: Photomorphogenic and Chlorophyll Studies in the Bryophyte Marchantía polymorpha. I. Effect of Red, Far-red Irradiations in Short and Long Term Experiments. Physiol. Plantarum 21, 346 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 122.
    Fujiki, H., M. Mori, M. Nakayasu, M. Terada, and T. Sugimura: A Possible Naturally Occurring Tumor Promotor, Teleocidin B from Streptomyces. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Comm. 90, 976 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 123.
    Fujita, Y., T. Ueda, and T. Ono: Essential Oils of Liverworts. I. Essential Oil of Bazzania pompeana. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 77, 400 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 124.
    Garnier, G., L. Bezaniger-Beauquesne, and G. Debraux: Ressources Médicinales de la Flore Française, Vol. I. P. 78. Paris: Vigot Frères Éditeurs. 1969.Google Scholar
  128. 125.
    Gellerman, J. L., W. H. Anderson, and H. Schlenk: Highly Unsaturated Lipids of Mnium, Polytrichum, Marchantía, and Matteuccia. Bryologist 75, 550 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 126.
    Gleizes, M., G. Pauly, and C. Suire: Les Essences Extraites du Thalle des Hépatiques 1. — Conocephalum conicum (L.) Dum. (Marchantiale). Botaniste 55, 339 (1972).Google Scholar
  130. 127.
    Gleizes, M., G. Pauly, and C. Suire Les Essences Extraites du Thalle des Hépatiques II. — La Fraction Sesquiterpénique de l’Essence de Marchantía polymorpha L. (Marchantiale). Botaniste 56, 209 (1973–1974).Google Scholar
  131. 128.
    Gorham, J.: Lunularic Acid and Related Compounds in Liverworts, Algae and Hydrangea. Phytochem. 16, 249 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 129.
    Gradstein, S. R., R. Matsuda, and Y. Asakawa: Studies on Colombian Cryptograms XIII. Oil Bodies and Terpenoids in Lejeuneaceae and Other Selected Hepaticae. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 50, 231 (1981).Google Scholar
  133. 130.
    Greene, A. E., J.-C. Muller, and G. Ourisson: A New Approach to a-Methylene-y- butyrolactones. Synthesis of (—)-Frullanolide. Tetrahedron Letters 1972, 2489.Google Scholar
  134. 131.
    Greene, A. E., J.-C. Muller, and G. Ourisson: A New Approach to α-Methylene-γ-butyrolactones. II. Synthesis of (+)- Arbusculin-B. Tetrahedron Letters 3375 (1972).Google Scholar
  135. 132.
    Greene, A. E., J.-C. Muller, and G. Ourisson: Conversions of α-Methyl to γ-Methylene y-Lactones. Synthesis of Two Allergenic Sesquiterpene Lactones, (—)-Frullanolide and (+)-Arbusculin B. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 39, 186 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 133.
    Haas, K., G. Buchloh, B. Baydur, and W. Tertinegg: Alkane Patterns in Polytrichum and Porella Species. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 86, 389 (1978).Google Scholar
  137. 134.
    Han, Y., and L. A. Paquette: Vinylsilane Mediated Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (±)-Gymnomitrol. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 44, 3731 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 135.
    Hayakawa, Y., F. Shimizu, and R. Noyori: A Single-step Synthesis of (±)-α- Cuparenone. Tetrahedron Letters 1978, 993.Google Scholar
  139. 136.
    Hayashi, S., T. Kami, A. Matsuo, H. Ando, and T. Seki: The Smell of Liverwort. Proc. Bryol. Soc. Japan 2, 38 (1977).Google Scholar
  140. 137.
    Hayashi, S., and A. Matsuo: Bazzanene, a Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbon of a New Carbon Skeleton from Bazzania pompeana (Lac.) Mitt. Experientia 25, 1139 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 138.
    Hayashi, S., and A. Matsuo: Bazzanenol, a New Sesquiterpene Alcohol Having a Skeleton of Bicyclo[5.3. 1]un-decane System from Hepaticae Bazzania pompeana (Lac.) Mitt. Experientia 26, 347 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 139.
    Hayashi, S., A. Matsuo, and T. Matsuura: Chiloscyphone, a New α,β-Unsaturated Sesquiterpene Ketone from Chiloscyphus polyanthus ( L.) Corda. Tetrahedron Letters 1969, 1599.Google Scholar
  143. 140.
    Hayashi, S., A. Matsuo, H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, D. Takaoka, and M. Hiroi: Three Acetylated Diterpene Diols of Verrucosane Type from the Liverwort, Mylia verrucosa. Chem. Letters 1978, 953.Google Scholar
  144. 141.
    Hegnauer, R.: Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen, Vol. I. P. 172. Basel: Birkhäuser- Verlag. 1962.Google Scholar
  145. 142.
    Herrmann, R. G.: Carotin-cis-trans-Isomere unter den Piastidenpigmenten des Lebermooses Sphaerocarpos. Z. Naturforschung 23b, 1496 (1968).Google Scholar
  146. 143.
    Herz, W., N. Kumar, W. Vichnewski, and J. F. Blount: Cytotoxic Sesquiterpene Lactones of Eremanthus incanus and Heterocoma albida. Crystal Structure and Stereochemistry of Eregoyazin. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 45, 2503 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 144.
    Holligan, P. M., and E. A. Drew: Routine Analysis by Gas-liquid Chromatography of Soluble Carbohydrates in Extracts of Plants. II. Quantitative Analysis of Standard Carbohydrates, and the Separation and Estimation of Soluble Sugars and Polyols from a Variety of Plant Tissues. New Phytol. 70, 271 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 145.
    Hopkins, B. J., and G. W. Perold: (S)-2-Hydroxycuparene [p-(l,2,2-trimethyl cyclopentyl)-o-cresol] and 3,4′-Ethylene Bisphenol from a Liverwort, Marchantíapolymorpha Linn. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I 1974, 32.Google Scholar
  149. 146.
    Hörster, H., and R. Wiermann: Phytochemische Untersuchungen an thallösen Lebermoosen. Monoterpen Conocephalum conicum (L.) Wiggers (Marchantiales). Nova Hedwigia 27, 183 (1976).Google Scholar
  150. 147.
    Howard, B. M., and W. Fenical: α- and β-Snyderol; New Bromo-Monocyclic Sesquiterpenes from the Seaweed Laurencia. Tetrahedron Letters 1976, 41.Google Scholar
  151. 148.
    Huneck, S.: Zur Chemie der Moose I. Die erstmalige Isolierung eines natürlich vorkommenden Azulens aus Calypogeia trichomanis (L.) Corda. Z. Naturforschung 18b, 1126 (1963).Google Scholar
  152. 149.
    Huneck, S.: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose IV. Die Isolierung von Drimenol aus Bazzania trilobata (L.) Lindberg. Z. Naturforschung 22b, 462 (1967).Google Scholar
  153. 150.
    Huneck, S.: Recent Literature on the Chemistry of Liverworts and Mosses (I). Misc. Bryol. et Lichenol 5, 49 (1969).Google Scholar
  154. 151.
    Huneck, S.: Moosinhaltsstoffe, eine Übersicht. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 32, 1 (1969).Google Scholar
  155. 152.
    Huneck, S.: Neue Ergebnisse zur Chemie der Moose, eine Übersicht. Teil 3. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 36, 1 (1972).Google Scholar
  156. 153.
    Huneck, S.: Neue Ergebnisse zur Chemie der Moose, eine Übersicht. Teil 4. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 38, 609 (1974).Google Scholar
  157. 154.
    Huneck, S.: Campesteryl Behenate in Liverworts. Phytochem. 13, 1289 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 155.
    Huneck, S.: Moosinhaltsstoffe-XVIII. Synthese von Pellepiphyllin und Lunularin. Tetrahedron 32, 109 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 156.
    Huneck, S.: Neue Ergebnisse zur Chemie der Moose, eine Übersicht. Teil 5. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 43, 1 (1977).Google Scholar
  160. 157.
    Huneck, S.: priv. commun.Google Scholar
  161. 158.
    Huneck, S., and N. H. Andersen: Sesquiterpene einiger europäischer Lebermoose und ihre chemotaxonomische Bedeutung. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 387 (1978).Google Scholar
  162. 159.
    Huneck, S., R. Grolle, and O. Vevle: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose, XII. Über die Inhaltsstoffe einiger Lebermoose. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 36, 93 (1972).Google Scholar
  163. 160.
    Huneck, S., and E. Klein: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose-III. Über die vergleichende gas- und dünnschichtchromatographische Untersuchung der ätherischen Öle einiger Lebermoose und Isolierung von (—)-Longifolen und (—)-Longiborneol aus Scapania undulata (L.) Dum. Phytochem. 6, 383 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 161.
    Huneck, S., and E. Klein: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose, VII. Über die vergleichende Gaschromatographie der ätherischen Öle und Wachse einiger Lebermoose. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 33, 1 (1970).Google Scholar
  165. 162.
    Huneck, S., and R. J. Pryce: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose, IX. Lunularsäure aus Marchantia alpestris. Z. Natur for schung 26b, 738 (1971).Google Scholar
  166. 163.
    Huneck, S., and K. Schreiber: Wachstumsregulatorische Eigenschaften von Flechten- und Moose-Inhaltsstoffen. Phytochem. 11, 2429 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 164.
    Huneck, S., and K. Schreiber: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose, XVII. Über die Inhaltsstoffe weiterer Lebermoose. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 39, 215 (1975).Google Scholar
  168. 165.
    Huneck, S., and K. Schreiber: Synthese der Lunularsäure. Phytochem. 16, 1013 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 166.
    Huneck, S., and K. H. Overton: Neue Diterpenoide und andere Inhaltsstoffe aus Lebermoosen. Phytochem. 10, 3279 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 167.
    Huneck, S., and O. Vevle: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose, VIII. (—)-16α-Hydroxykauran aus Anthelia julacea (L.) Dum. und Anthelia juratzkana (Limpr.) Trev. Z. Naturforschung 25b, 227 (1970).Google Scholar
  171. 168.
    Inoue, H., Y. Asakawa, and S. R. Gradstein: Biosystematic Studies on Neohattoria herzogii (Hatt.) Kamim. Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Ser. B. 7, 15 (1981).Google Scholar
  172. 169.
    Inoue, H., Y. Asakawa, and S. R. Gradstein: A Biosystematic Study on Nipponolejeunea Hatt. (Lejeuneaceae, Hepaticae). Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. Ser. B. 7, 135 (1981).Google Scholar
  173. 170.
    Irwin, M. A., and T. A. Geissman: Novanin: A Germacranolide from Artemisia nova. Phytochem. 12, 875 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 171.
    Jolad, S. D., R. M. Wiedhoph, and J. R. Cole: Tumor Inhibitor Agent from Zaluzania robinsonii (Compositae). J. Pharm. Sci. 60, 1321 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 172.
    Kanasaki, T., and K. Ohta: Isolation and Identification of Costunolide as a Piscicidal Component of Marchantia polymorpha. Agric. Biol. Chem. (Tokyo) 40, 1239 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 173.
    Kido, F., K. Tsutsumi, R. Maruta, and A. Yoshikosi: Lactone Annulation of β-Keto Esters with β-Vinylbutenolide and the Total Synthesis of Racemic Frullanolide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 6420 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 174.
    Kinzel, H., and A. Walland: Zum Vorkommen von Shikimisäure bei Moosen und Farnen. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 54, 371 (1966).Google Scholar
  178. 175.
    Knoche, H., G. Ourisson, G. W. Perold, J. Foussereau, and J. Maleville: Allergenic Component of a Liverwort: A Sesquiterpene Lactone. Science 166, 239 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 176.
    Kodama, M., T. Kurihara, J. Sasaki, and S. Ito: Total Synthesis of Barbatane Sesquiterpenes; α- and β-Barbatenes, Gymnomitrol, and Isogymnomitrol. Can. J. Chem. 57, 3343 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 177.
    Kodama, M., T. Takahashi, T. Kurihara, and S. Ito: Stereoselective Total Synthesis of Bazzanene. Tetrahedron Letters 1980, 2811.Google Scholar
  181. 178.
    Konowa, K. A., P. W. Thies, and G. Snatzke: Circular Dichroism-LXVIII. Compounds from Valerian-XII. On the Chiroptical Properties of Valepotriates and Related Compounds. Tetrahedron 34, 253 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 179.
    Krutov, S. M., Z. Samek, V. Benesova, and V. Herout: Isolation and the Structure of Deoxopinguisone from the Liverwort Ptilidium ciliare. Phytochem. 12, 1405 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 180.
    Lewis, D. H.: Chemotaxonomic Aspects of the Distribution of Acyclic Sugar Alcohols in Leafy Liverworts. I. Chemical Evidence for the Taxonomic Position of Plagiochila caringtoni (Balfour) Grolle. Transact. Brit. Bryol. Soc. 6, 108 (1970).Google Scholar
  184. 181.
    Lewis, D. H.: A Chemotaxonomic Classification of Some Groups of Leafy Liverworts. Transact. Brit. Bryol. Soc. 6, 391 (1971).Google Scholar
  185. 182.
    Lichtenthaler, H. K.: Verbreitung und relative Konzentration der lipophilen Plastidenchinone in grünen Pflanzen. Planta 81, 140 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 183.
    Lichtenthaler, H. K., P. Karunen, and K. H. Grumbach: Determination of Prenylquinones in Green Photosynthetically Active Moss and Liver Moss Tissues. Physiol. Plant. 40, 105 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 184.
    Lopes, G.: Contribution à l’Étude Expérimentale de Phénomènes d’Allergie. Thèse Dr. Pharm. Univ. Bordeaux, P. 1 (1955).Google Scholar
  188. 185.
    Maass, W. S. G., and J. S. Craigie: Examination of Some Soluble Constituents of Sphagnum Gametophytes. Can. J. Bot. 42, 803 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 186.
    Maçaira, L. A., M. Garcia, and J. A. Rabi: Chemical Transformations of Abundant Natural Products. 3. Modifications of Eremanthin Leading to Other Naturally Occurring Guaianolides. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 42, 4207 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 187.
    Markham, K. R.: A Novel Flavone-polysaccharide Compound from Monoclea forsten. Phytochem. 11, 2047 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 188.
    Markham, K. R.: Flavonoid and Phylogeny of the “Primitive” New Zealand Hepatic, Haplomitrium gibbsiae. Phytochem. 16, 617 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 189.
    Markham, K. R., T. J. Mabry, and J. E. Averett: Acacetin 7-0- rhamnosylgalacturonide from Reboulia hemispherica. Phytochem. 11, 2875 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 190.
    Markham, K. R., N. A. Moore, and L. J. Porter: Changeover in Flavonoid Pattern Accompanying Reproductive Structure Formation in a Bryophyte. Phytochem. 17, 911 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 191.
    Markham, K. R., R. Mues, and H. D. Zinsmeister: Luteolin 7-glucuronide-3′- mono(trans)ferulylglucoside and Other Unusual Flavonoids in the Aquatic Liverwort Complex, Riccia fluitans. Phytochem. 17, 1601 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 192.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Flavonoids of the Liverwort Marchantia foliacea. Phytochem. 12, 2007 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 193.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Luteolin-3′, 4′-di-O-β-D-glucuronide and Luteolin-3′-0-β-D-glucuronide from Lunularia cruciata. Phytochem. 13, 1553 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 194.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Flavonoids of the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. Phytochem. 13, 1937 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 195.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Evidence of Biosynthetic Simplicity in the Flavonoid Chemistry of the Ricciaceae. Phytochem. 14, 199 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 196.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Isoscutellarein and Hypolaetin-8-glucuronides from the Liverwort Marchantia berteroana. Phytochem. 14, 1093 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 197.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Flavone Glucuronides of the New Zealand Liverwort Marchantia macropora. Phytochem. 14, 1641 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 198.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Production of an Auron by Bryophytes in the Reproductive Phase. Phytochem. 17, 159 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 199.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Chemical Constituents of the Bryophytes. In: Progress in Phytochemistry (Harborne, J. B., and T. Swain, eds.), Vol. 5, P. 181. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1978.Google Scholar
  203. 200.
    Markham, K. R., and L. J. Porter: Flavonoids of the Primitive Liverwort Takakia and Their Taxonomic and Phylogenic Significance. Phytochem. 18, 611 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 201.
    Maricham, K. R., L. J. Porter, and B. G. Brehm: Flavonoid C-glycosides in the Hepaticae (Liverworts). Phytochem. 8, 2193 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 202.
    Markham, K. R., L. J. Porter, and E. O. Campbell: The Usefulness of Flavonoid Characters in Studies of the Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Liverworts. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 387 (1978).Google Scholar
  206. 203.
    Markham, K. R., L. J. Porter, E. O. Campbell, J. Chopin, and M.-L. Bouillant: Phytochemical Support for the Existence of Two Species in the Genus Hymenophyton. Phytochem. 15, 1517 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 204.
    Markham, K. R., L. J. Porter, and N. G. Miller: The Taxonomic Position of Sphaerocarpos and Riella as Indicated by Their Flavonoid Chemistry. Phytochem. 15, 151 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 205.
    Markham, K. R., L. J. Porter, R. Mues, H. D. Zinsmeister, and B. G. Brehm: Flavonoid Variation in the Liverwort Conocephalum conicum: Evidence for Geographic Races. Phytochem. 15, 147 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 205a.
    Martensson, O., and E. Nilsson: On the Morphological Colour of Bryophyte. Lindbergia 2, 145 (1974).Google Scholar
  210. 206.
    Matsuo, A.: Structure of Bazzanene. Tetrahedron 27, 2757 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 207.
    Matsuo, A.: The Structure and Stereochemistry of Chiloscyphone. Tetrahedron 28, 1203 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 208.
    Matsuo, A., K. Atsumi, K. Nadaya, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: 13C NMR Chemical Shifts on Ovalifoliene and Related Compounds with the 2,3-Seco-alloaroma- dendrane Skeleton: Structure of (+)-9α-Acetoxyovalifoliene, A Plant Growth Inhibitor. Phytochem. 20, 1065 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 209.
    Matsuo, A., K. Atsumi, M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, and K. Kuriyama: (+)-Ovalifoliene and (-)-Hanegokedial, Two Novel Sesquiterpenoids of the Ent-2,3- seco-alloaromadendrane skeleton from the Liverwort Plagiochila semidecurrens. Chem. Commun. 1979, 1010.Google Scholar
  214. 210.
    Matsuo, A., and S. Hayashi: The Stereostructure of Chiloscyphone. Tetrahedron Letters 1970, 1289.Google Scholar
  215. 211.
    Matsuo, A., and S. Hayashi: Revised Structure and Absolute Configuration of the Sesquiterpene (+)-Bazzanene. Chem. Commun. 1977, 566.Google Scholar
  216. 212.
    Matsuo, A., O. Ismi, M. Suzuki, M. nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Sesquiterpenoids of Riccardia jackii. 24th Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Koriyama, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 224 (1980).Google Scholar
  217. 213.
    Matsuo, A., J. Kodama, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Ent-Kaurane Diterpenoids from the Liverwort Jungermannia infusca. Phytochem. 16, 489 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 214.
    Matsuo, A., N. Kubota, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: (-)-Lepidozenal, a Sesquiterpenoid with a Novel trans-Fused Bicyclo [8.1.0] undecane System from the Liverwort Lepidozia vitrea. Chem. Letters 1981, 1097.Google Scholar
  219. 215.
    Matsuo, A., N. Kubota, S. Uto, M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, and K. Yamasaki: (—)-Isobicyelogermacrenal, a Novel Sesquiterpenoid of Ent-isobicyclogermacrene Group from the Liverwort Lepidozia vitrea. Chem. Letters 1979, 1383.Google Scholar
  220. 216.
    Matsuo, A., T. Maeda, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: α-Pompene, a Novel Tricyclic Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbon from the Liverwort, Bazzania pompeana. Tetrahedron Letters 1973, 4131.Google Scholar
  221. 217.
    Matsuo, A., K. Naday A, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Plant Growth Inhibitors Isolated from the Liverwort, Plagiochila ovalifolia. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 1981, 665.Google Scholar
  222. 218.
    Matsuo, A., T. Nakamoto, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Jungermanool, a New Labdane Diol from the Liverwort, Jungermannia torticalyx Steph. Experientia 32, 966 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 219.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Fatty Acid Esters in the Volatile Oil from the Liverwort, Pellia fabbroniana. Phytochem. 10, 430 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 220.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Aromatic Esters from the Liverwort, Isotachis japonica. Z. Naturforschung 26b, 1023 (1971).Google Scholar
  225. 221.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: δ-Cuparenol, a New Sesquiterpene Phenol from the Liverwort, Bazzania pompeana. Chem. Letters 1972, 341.Google Scholar
  226. 222.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons of the Liverwort, Scapania parvitexta. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 46, 1010 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 223.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Chemical Proof of Enantiomeric (—)-Longiborneol. Chem. Letters 1973, 769.Google Scholar
  228. 224.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Low-boiling Constituents in the Essential Oil of the Liverwort, Bazzania pompeana (Lac.). Z. Naturforschung 29c, 442 (1974).Google Scholar
  229. 225.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, H. Goto, and S. Hayashi: n-Paraffin Composition of Some Liverworts. Phytochem. 13, 957 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 226.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, and K. Nagai: Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters in the liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Phytochem. 19, 1848 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 227.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, and S. Nishimoto: Isolation of n-Paraffins and Sec-Alcohols from Isotachis japonica. Phytochem. 11, 3313 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 228.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, T. Seki, and T. Amakawa: A Comparative Study of the Diterpenoids from Several Species of the Genus Jungermannia. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 321 (1978).Google Scholar
  233. 229.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, and S. Yasuda: Isolation of Five Sterols from Liverwort, Scapania parvitexta Steph. Agrie. Biol. Chem. (Tokyo) 36, 2241 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 230.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, Y. Ishida, and S. Hayashi: Isolation of Nonacosan-10-ol and Cuparene from the Liverwort, Bazzania pompeana. Z. Naturforschung 26b, 32 (1971).Google Scholar
  235. 231.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, M. Maeda, and S. Hayashi: Distribution Pattern of Sterols in Liverworts Belonging to the Jungermanniales. Phytochem. 12, 2413 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 232.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, T. Maeda, Y. Noda, and S. Hayashi: Enantiomeric Cupárene-type Sesquiterpenoids from Bazzania pompeana. Phytochem. 14, 1037 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 233.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, J. Ono, and S. Hayashi: Isolation of (–)-Manool from the Liverwort, Jungermannia torticalyx. Z. Naturforschung 27b, 1437 (1972).Google Scholar
  238. 234.
    Matsuo, A., M. Nakayama, S. Sato, T. Nakamoto, S. Uto, and S. Hayashi: (—)-Maalioxide and (+)-Cyclocolorenone, Enantiomeric Sesquiterpenoids from the Liverwort, Plagiochila acanthophylla subsp. japonica. Experientia 30, 321 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 235.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, K. Atsumi, H. Kataoka, M. Nakayama, Y. Kushi, and S. Hayashi: (+)-Ovalifolienalone, a Novel Sesquiterpenoid Ketone of the Ent-2,3-seco- alloaromadendrane Group from Plagiochila semidecurrens ( Liverwort) X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure. Chem. commun. 1979, 1012.Google Scholar
  240. 236.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, H. Kataoka, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: (–)-Maalian-5- ol, a New Enantiomeric Sesquiterpenoid from the Liverwort Plagiochila ovalifolia. Experientia 35, 1279 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 237.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, and D. Takaoka: Structure of (—)-2,9-Dihydroxyverrucosane, a Novel Carbon Skeletal Diterpenoid from the Liverwort My lia verrucosa. Chem. Commun. 1978, 198.Google Scholar
  242. 238.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, K. Kushi, S. Hayashi, and N. Kamijo: The Revised Structure for a-Pompene and the Absolute Configurations of (+)-a- and (—)-P- Pompene from Bazzania pompearía. Tetrahedron Letters 1975, 241.Google Scholar
  243. 239.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, Y. Kushi, S. Hayashi, N. Kamijo, V. Benesova, and V. Herout: X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of the p-Bromobenzoate of (—)-Myliol, a Novel Tetracyclic Sesquiterpene Alcohol from Mylia taylorii (Liverwort) Containing Two Conjugated Cyclopropane Rings. Revision of a Proposed Structure. Chem. Commun. 1976, 1006.Google Scholar
  244. 240.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, Y. Kushi, S. Hayashi, T. Komori, and N. Kamijo: (+)-Bicyclohumulenone, a Novel Sesquiterpene Ketone of the Humulane Group from Plagiochila acanthophylla subsp. japonica ( Liverwort ): X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of the p-Bromobenzoate Derivative. Chem. Commun. 1979, 174.Google Scholar
  245. 241.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, D. Takaoka, and S. Hayashi: Structure of (—)-Neoverrucosane-5β-ol, a Diterpenoid from Mylia verrucosa ( Liverwort) Containing a Novel Carbon Skeleton: X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of the Benzoate. Chem. Commun. 1980, 822.Google Scholar
  246. 242.
    Matsuo, A., H. Nozaki, M. Shigemori, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: (—)-Dihydromylione, a Novel Tetracyclic Sesquiterpene Ketone Containing Two Conjugated Cyclopropane Rings, from Mylia taylorii (Liverwort). Experientia 33, 991 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 243.
    Matsuo, A., S. Sato, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Taylorione, a Novel Carbon Skeletal Sesquiterpene Ketone from the Liverwort, Mylia taylorii ( Hock.) Gray. Tetrahedron Letters 1974, 3681.Google Scholar
  248. 244.
    Matsuo, A., S. Sato, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Structure and Absolute Configuration of (—)-Taylorione, a Novel Skeletal Sesquiterpene Ketone of Ent-1,10-seco-aromadendrane Form, from Mylia taylorii (Liverwort). J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. I 1979, 2652.Google Scholar
  249. 245.
    Matsuo, A., I. Terada, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Cuprenenol and Rosulantol, a New Cuparane Class Sesquiterpene Alcohols from the Liverwort Jungermannia rosulans. Tetrahedron Letters 1977, 3821.Google Scholar
  250. 246.
    Matsuo, A., S. Uto, J. Kodama, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Structure and Reactions of Two New Diterpene Acetates Isolated from the Liverwort, Jungermannia infusca. Nippon Kagaku Kaishi 1978, 1680.Google Scholar
  251. 247.
    Matsuo, A., S. Uto, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons of the Liverwort, Dumortiera hirsuta. Z. Naturforschung 31c, 401 (1976).Google Scholar
  252. 248.
    Matsuo, A., S. Uto, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Isolation of Two New iswi-kaurane Class Diterpenoids from Porella densifolia (Liverwort). Chem. Letters 1977, 327.Google Scholar
  253. 249.
    Matsuo, A., S. Uto, M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, K. Yamasaki, R. Kasai, and O. Tanaka: (—)-Thermarol, a New Ent-pimarane-class Diterpene Diol from Jungermannia thermarum ( Liverwort ). Tetrahedron Letters 1976, 2451.Google Scholar
  254. 250.
    Matsuo, A., S. Uto, H. Nozaki, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: X-Ray Crystal Structure of (+)-Vitrenal, a Sesquiterpenoid Plant-growth Inhibitor Containing a Novel Carbon Skeleton Isolated from the Liverwort Lepidozia vitrea. Chem. Commun. 1980, 1220.Google Scholar
  255. 251.
    Matsuo, A., S. Uto, K. Sakuda, Y. Uchio, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Structures of Three New Ent-Longipinane Type Sesquiterpenoids from the Liverwort Marsupella emarginata subsp. tubulosa. Chem. Letters 1979, 73.Google Scholar
  256. 252.
    Méndez, J., and F. Sanz-Cabanilles: Cinnamic Acid Esters in Anthoceros Species. Phytochem. 18, 1409 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 253.
    Meuche, D., and S. Huneck: Azulene aus Calypogeia trichomanis (L.) Corda. Chem. Ber. 99, 2669 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 254.
    Meuche, D., and S. Huneck: Inhaltsstoffe der Moose, V. Strukturaufklärung und Synthese des 3,7-Dimethyl-5- methoxy-carbonyl-indens, eines neuen Inhaltsstoffes aus Calypogeia trichomanis (L.) Corda. Chem. Ber. 102, 2493 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 255.
    Mitchell, J. C., B. Fritig, B. Singh, and G. H. N. Towers: Allergenic Contact Dermatitis from Frullania and Compositae. The Role of Sesquiterpene Lactones. J. Invest. Derm. 54, 233 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 256.
    Mitscher, L. A., Y. H. Park, A. Al-Shamma, P. B. Hudson, and T. Haas: Amorfrutin A and B, Bibenzyl Antimicrobial Agents from Amorpha fruticosa. Phytochem. 20, 781 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 257.
    Mizutani, M.: On the Taste of Some Mosses. Misc. Bryol. et Lichenol. 2, 100 (1961).Google Scholar
  262. 258.
    Molisch, H.: Über das Vorkommen von Saponarin bei einem Lebermoos (Madotheca platyphylla). Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 29, 487 (1911).Google Scholar
  263. 259.
    Mués, R.: Flavone Di-C-glycosides from the Liverwort Trichocolea tomentella (L.) Dum. J. Hattori Bot. Lab., in press.Google Scholar
  264. 260.
    Mués, R., E. Edelbluth, and H. D. Zinsmeister: Das Carotinoidmuster von Lophocolea bidentata (L.) Dum. Österr. Bot. Z. 122, 177 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 261.
    Mués, R., N. Ohno, H. D. Zinsmeister, and T. J. Mabry: Plagiochilide from the Liverwort, Plagiochila asplenioides. Phytochem. 18, 1568 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 262.
    Mués, R., and H. D. Zinsmeister: Lucenins in the Liverwort Plagiochila asplenioides. Phytochem. 14, 577 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 263.
    Mués, R., and H. D. Zinsmeister: Flavonoids of Plagiochila asplenioides. Phytochem. 15, 1757 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 264.
    Mués, R., and H. D. Zinsmeister: Studies on Phenolic Constituents of Jungermanniales in Relation to Their Taxonomy. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 399 (1978).Google Scholar
  269. 265.
    Müller, K.: Beitrag zur Kenntniß der Ätherischen Öle bei Lebermoosen. Hoppe- Seyler’s Ztschr. Physiol. Chem. 45, 299 (1905).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 266.
    Nagai, K., A. Matsuo, M. Nakayama, and S. Hayashi: Hexanesoluble Components of Marchantia paleacea var. díptera. 22nd Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Yokohama, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 1 (1978).Google Scholar
  271. 267.
    Nakanishi, K., and I. Kubo: Studies on Warburganal, Muzigadial and Related Compounds. Israel J. Chem. 16, 28 (1977).Google Scholar
  272. 268.
    Nakayama, M., A. Matsuo, T. Kami, and S. Hayashi: Volátiles from Leptolejeunea e Hip tica. Phytochem. 18, 328 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 269.
    Nakayama, M., S. Ohira, S. Shinke, Y. Matsushita, A. Matsuo, and S. Hayashi: Synthesis of (—)-Taylorione, a Sesquiterpene Ketone of Ent-1,10-secoaromadendrane Skeleton. Chem. Letters 1979, 1245.Google Scholar
  274. 270.
    Nilsson, E.: Moss Pigments. 10. Isovitexin-7-glucoside in Por ella platyphylla (L.) Lindb. Acta. Chem. Scand. 23, 2910 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 271.
    Nilsson, E.: Chemical Studies on Bryophytes. 14. Apigenin-6,8-di-C-glycoside from Porella platyphylla. Phytochem. 12, 722 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 272.
    Nilsson, E., and O. Martensson: Chemical Studies on Bryophytes. 11. (-)-16α-Hydro- xykaurane from Saelania glaucescens (Hedw.) Broth. Acta Chem. Scand. 25, 1486 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 273.
    Nishimura, K., I. Horibe, and K. Tori: Conformation of 10-Membered Rings in Bicyclogermacrene and Isobicyclogermacrene. Tetrahedron 29, 271 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 274.
    Nishimura, K., N. Shinoda, and Y. Hirose: A New Sesquiterpene, Bicyclogermacrene. Tetrahedron Letters 1969, 3097.Google Scholar
  279. 275.
    Nozaki, H.: Structure and Absolute Stereochemistry of the Sesquiterpene Alcohol (—)-Myliol: X-Ray Analysis of the p-Bromobenzoate. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II 1979, 514.Google Scholar
  280. 276.
    Nozaki, H., A. Matsuo, Y. Kushi, M. Nakayama, S. Hayashi, D. Takaoka, and N. Kamijo: The Structure and Absolute Configuration of (—)-2p,9oe-Dihydroxyverru- cosane Isolated from the Liverwort Mylia verrucosa: X-Ray Analysis of the Mono-p- bromobenzoate. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. II 1980, 763.Google Scholar
  281. 277.
    Nozaki, H., A. Matsuo, M. Nakayama, Y. Kushi, N. Kamijo, and S. Hayashi: Structure and Absolute Configuration of a-Pompene. II. An X-Ray Analysis of the Mono-p-bromobenzoate of the Diol Derived from a-Pompene. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 51, 568 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 278.
    O’brien, T. G., R. C. Simsiman, and R. K. Boutwell: Induction of the Polyamine- Biosynthetic Enzymes in Mouse Epidermis by Tumor-promoting Agents. Cancer Res. 35, 1662 (1975).Google Scholar
  283. 279.
    Ohsuka, A.: The Structure of a Tadeonal, a Pungent Component of Polygonum hydropiper. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 83, 757 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 280.
    Ohsuka, A.: The Study on the Components of Tade. II. The Structure of Tadeonal and Isotadeonal, Components of Polygonum hydropiper. Nippon Kagaku Zasshi 84, 748 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 281.
    Ohta, Y., N. H. Andersen, and C.-B. Liu: Sesquiterpene Constituents of Two Liverworts of Genus Diplophyllum. Novel Eudesmanolides and Cytotoxicity Studies for Enantiomeric Methylene Lactones. Tetrahedron 33, 617 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 282.
    Ono, M.: Study on the Sugar of Hepaticae (2). On the Sugar of Trichocolea tomentella. J. Jap. Bot. 33, 285 (1958).Google Scholar
  287. 283.
    Ono, M.: Study on the Sugar of Hepaticae (3). The Chromatogram of the Sugar in Some Species of Hepaticae. J. Jap. Bot. 33, 367 (1958).Google Scholar
  288. 284.
    Ono, M., and H. Yoshimura: Study on the Sugar of Hepaticae (1). On the Sugar of Bazzania pompeana. J. Jap. Bot. 33, 60 (1958).Google Scholar
  289. 285.
    Paquette, L. A., and Y.-K. Han: A Vinylsilane Route of (±)-Gymnomitrol. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 103, 1831 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 286.
    Pavletic, Z., and B. Stilonovic: Untersuchungen uber die antibiotische Wirkung von Moosextrakten auf einige Bakterien. Acta Bot. Croatica 22, 133 (1963).Google Scholar
  291. 287.
    Perold, G. W., J.-C. Muller, and G. Ourisson: Structure d’une Lactone Allergisante: Le Frullanolide-I. Tetrahedron 28, 5797 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 288.
    Pryce, R. J.: Biosynthesis of Lunularic Acid — A Dihydrostilbene Endogenous Growth Inhibitor of Liverworts. Phytochem. 10, 2679 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 289.
    Pryce, R. J.: Lunularic Acid, a Common Endogenous Growth Inhibitor of Liverworts. Planta 97, 354 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 290.
    Pryce, R. J.: Metabolism of Lunularic Acid to a New Plant Stilbene by Lunularia cruciata. Phytochem. 11, 1355 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 291.
    Pryce, R. J.: The Occurrence of Lunularic Acid and Abscisic Acid in Plants. Phytochem. 11, 1759 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 292.
    Pryce, R. J., and L. Linton: Lunularic Acid Decarboxylase from the Liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Phytochem. 13, 2497 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 293.
    Quillet, M.: Sur le Métabolisme Glucidique des Bryophytes. Présence de Poly- fructosides dans Certains Groupes d’Hépatiques. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 232, 2475 (1956).Google Scholar
  298. 294.
    Quillet, M.: Sur le Métabolisme Glucidique des Hépatiques: Jungermanniales et Marchantiales. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris 242, 2656 (1956).Google Scholar
  299. 295.
    Rancken, H.: Über die Stärke der Bryophyten. Acta Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn. 39, 1 (1914).Google Scholar
  300. 296.
    Rao, M. P., and V. S. R. Das: Metabolic Changes During Reproductive Development in Liverworts. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 59, 87 (1968).Google Scholar
  301. 297.
    Reznik, H., and R. Wiermann: Quercetin und Kämpferoi in Thallusgewebe von Corsinia coriandrina (Sprengel) Lindb. (Marchantiales). Naturwissenschaften 53, 230 (1966).Google Scholar
  302. 298.
    Shacklette, H. I.: Element Content of Bryophytes. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1198-D, 1 (1965).Google Scholar
  303. 299.
    Schneider, M. J., R. F. Troxler, and P. D. Voth: Occurrence of Indole-acetic Acid in the Bryophytes. Bot. Gaz. 128, 174 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 300.
    Schuster, R. M.: The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America. Vol. 1, P. 780. New York: Columbia University Press. 1966.Google Scholar
  305. 301.
    Schuster, R. M. The Phylogeny of the Hepaticae. In: Bryophytes Systematics (Clarke, G. C. S., and J. G. Duckett, eds.), P. 41. New York and London: Academic Press. 1979.Google Scholar
  306. 302.
    Shinoda, N., M. Shiga, and K. Nishimura: Constituents of Yuzu (Citrus junos) Oil. Agric. Biol. Chem. (Tokyo) 34, 234 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 303.
    Spencer, K. C.: Chemical Constituents of the Hepaticae. Phytochem. Bull. 12, 4 (1979).Google Scholar
  308. 304.
    Strain, H.H.: Fat-soluble Chloroplast Pigments: Their Identification and Distribution in Various Australian Plants. In: Biochemistry of Chloroplasts ( Goodwin, T. W., ed.). New York and London: Academic Press. 1966.Google Scholar
  309. 305.
    Stransky, K., M. Streibl, and V. Herout: On Natural Waxes. VI. Distribution of Wax Hydrocarbons in Plants at Different Evolutionary Levels. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 32, 3213 (1967).Google Scholar
  310. 306.
    Suire, C.: Recherches Cytologiques sur Deux Hépatiques: Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda (Métzgeriale) et Radula complanata (L.) Dum. (Jungermanniale) Ergastome, Sporogénèse et Spermatogénèse. Botaniste 53, 125 (1970).Google Scholar
  311. 307.
    Suire, C.: Les Données Actuelles sur la Chimie des Bryophytes. Rev. Bryol. Lichénol. 41, 105 (1975).Google Scholar
  312. 308.
    Suire, C., and G. Burgeois: Les Monoterpénes de Conocephalum conicum, Frullania tamarisci and Porella platyphylla. Phytochem. 16, 284 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 309.
    Suire, C., G. Bourgeois, B. Barbe, and M. Petraud: L’iso-α-gurjunene B, Principal Constituant de la Fraction Sesquiterpénique de l’Essence Extraite de Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda. Bryophytorum Bibliotheca 13, 329 (1978).Google Scholar
  314. 310.
    Suire, C., and Y. Asakawa: Chemotaxonomy of bryophytes: a Survey. In: Bryophytes Systematics (Clarke, G. C. S., and J. G. Duckett, eds.), P. 447. New York and London: Academic Press. 1979.Google Scholar
  315. 311.
    Suire, C., and Y. Asakawa: Recent Advances in the Chemotaxonomy of Liverworts. In: Bryophyte Taxonomy (Geissler, P., and S. W. Greene). Vaduz: J. Cramer, in press.Google Scholar
  316. 312.
    Suire, C., and Y. Asakawa: Chimie et Chimiotaxonomie des Bryophytes: Resultats Essentiels et Perspectives. In: Advances in Bryology (Schultze-Motel, W., ed.), p. 147. Vaduz: J. Cramer. 1981.Google Scholar
  317. 313.
    Suire, C., Y. Asakawa, M. Toyota, and T. Takemoto: Chirality of Terpenoids Isolated from the Liverwort Conocephalum conicum. Phytochem. 21, 349 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. 313a.
    Suleiman, A. A. A.: The Carbohydrates of the Leafy Liverwort, Plagiochila asplenioides, and Aspects of Their Metabolism. Dr. Thesis Univ. Sheffield, P. 1–149 (1972).Google Scholar
  319. 314.
    Svensson,L.,and G. Bendz: Essential Oils from Some Liverworts. Phytochem. 11, 1172 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 315.
    Svensson, L.: Monoterpene Hydrocarbons from Jungermannia cordifolia and J. obovata. Phytochem. 13, 651 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 316.
    Takaoka, D.: Structure of Six Verrucosanes, Novel Carbon Skeletal Diterpenoids from the Liverwort, My lia verrucosa Lindb. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans I 1979, 2711.Google Scholar
  322. 317.
    Takeda, K., I. Horibe, and H. Minato: Absolute Configuration of Bicycloelemene and Conformation of Bicyclogermacrene. Chem. Commun. 1971, 308.Google Scholar
  323. 318.
    Takeda, R., and K. Katoh: Growth and Sesquiterpenoid Production by Calypogeia granulata Inoue Cells in Suspension Culture. Planta 151, 525 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 319.
    Takeda, R., R. Mori, H. Naoki, and Y. Hirose: Studies on Chemical Constituents of Ptychanthus striatus (4). 101st Annual Meeting of Pharm. Soc. Japan. Kumamoto, Symposium Papers, P. 486 (1981).Google Scholar
  325. 320.
    Takeda, R., Y. Ohta, and K. Katoh: Chemical Constituents of Calypogeia granulata and Its Callus. 22nd Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Yokohama, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 17 (1978).Google Scholar
  326. 321.
    Takeda, R., Y. Ohta, and Y. Hirose: Studies on Chemical Constituents of Ptychanthus striatus. 21st Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Tokushima, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 237 (1977).Google Scholar
  327. 322.
    Takeda, R., Y. Ohta, and Y. Hirose: Studies on Chemical Constituents of Ptychanthus striatus (2). 23rd Symposium on Chemistry of Terpenes, Essential Oils and Aromatics. Tottori, Japan. Symposium Papers, P. 28 (1979).Google Scholar
  328. 323.
    Takeda, R., Y. Ohta, and Y. Hirose: (+)-P-Frullanolide and (+)-Brothenolide, Two New Sesquiterpene Lactones from the Liverwort Frullania brotheri Steph. Chem. Letters 1980, 1461.Google Scholar
  329. 324.
    Takeda, R., Y. Ohta, and Y. Hirose: Studies on Chemical Constituents of Ptychanthus striatus (3). 100th Annual Meeting of Pharm. Soc. Japan. Tokyo, Symposium Papers, P. 195 (1980).Google Scholar
  330. 325.
    Taniguchi, M., and S. Isoe: priv. commun.Google Scholar
  331. 326.
    Taylor, J., R. J. Thomas, and J. G. Otero: Chromatographic and Spectrophotometry Analyses of the Photosynthetic Pigments of the Gametophyte and the Sporophyte of Lophocolea heterophylla. Bryologist 75, 36 (1972).Google Scholar
  332. 327.
    Theodor, R., K. R. Markham, R. Mues, and H. D. Zinsmeister: The Structures of New Flavone Di-C-glycosides from Apometzgeria pubescens. Phytochem. 20, 1457 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 328.
    Theodor, R., H. D. Zinsmeister, R. Mues, and K. R. Markham: Flavone C-glycosides of Apometzgeria pubescens. Phytochem. 19, 1695 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 329.
    Theodor, R., H. D. Zinsmeister, R. Mues, and K. R. Markham: Flavone C-glycosides of Two Metzgeria Species. Phytochem. 20, 1851 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. 330.
    Thomas, R. J.: Lipid Composition of Maturing and Elongate Liverwort Sporophytes. Phytochem. 14, 623 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 331.
    Thomas, R. J.: Sesquiterpenoids in the Sporophyte of Lophocolea heterophylla. Bryologist 78, 75 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 332.
    Tjukavkina, N. A., V. Benesova, and V. Herout: Plant Substances. XXXI. Flavonoid C-glycosides in Liverwort Madotheca platyphylla (L.) Dum. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 35, 1306 (1970).Google Scholar
  338. 333.
    Touffet, J., and S. Villeret: Recherches sur la Présence des Ureides Glyoxyliques et de Leurs Enzymes chez les Bryophytes. Bull. Soc. Bot. France 105, 312 (1958).Google Scholar
  339. 334.
    Toyota, M., Y. Asakawa, and T. Takemoto: Sesquiterpenes from Japanese Liverworts. Phytochem. 20, 2359 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 335.
    Valio, I. F. M., R. S. Burdon, and W. W. Schwabe: New Natural Growth Inhibitor in the Liverwort, Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum. Nature 223, 1176 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 336.
    Valio, I. F. M., and W. W. Schwabe: Growth and Dormancy in Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum. VII. The Isolation and Bioassay of Lunularic acid. J. Exp. Bot. 21, 13S (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 337.
    Vandekerkhove, O.: The Flavonoids of Riccia fluitans L. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 86, 217 (1978).Google Scholar
  343. 338.
    Vichnewski, W., F. W. L. Machado, J. A. Rabi, R. Murari, and W. Herz: Eregoyazin and Eregoyazidin, Two New Guaianolides from Eremanthus goyazensis. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 42, 3910 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 339.
    Vlahov, R., M. Holub, I. Ognjanov, and V. Herout: On Terpenes. CLXXXIV. Sesquiterpene Hydrocarbons from the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita of Bulgarian Origin. Collect. Czech. Chem. Comm. 32, 808 (1967).Google Scholar
  345. 340.
    Wada, K., and K. Munakata: Insect Feeding Inhibitors in Plants. Part III. Feeding Inhibitory Activity of Terpenoids in Plants. Agric. Biol. Chem. (Tokyo) 35, 115 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 341.
    Wagner, H., and H. Friedrich: Isolierung von Arachidonsäure aus den Moosen Rhyridiadelphus triquetrus, Polytrichum commune und Fagatella conica. Phytochem. 8, 1603 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 342.
    Walland, A., and H. Kinzel: Über die Zusammensetzung der Zellsäfte bei archegoniaten. Flora 156A, 597 (1966).Google Scholar
  348. 343.
    Weete, J. D.: Algal and Fungal Waxes. In: Chemistry and Biochemistry of Natural Waxes (Kolattududy, P. E., ed.), P. 349. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 1976.Google Scholar
  349. 344.
    Welch, S. C., and S. Chayabunjonglerd: A Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (+)- Gymnomitrol. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 6768 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 345.
    Welch, S. C, S. Chayabunjonglerd, and A. S. C. P. Rao: Stereoselective Total Synthesis of (±)-Gymnomitrol and (±)-Gymnomitrene. J. Organ. Chem. (U.S.A.) 45, 4086 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 346.
    Wenkert, E., B. L. Buckwalter, A. A. Craveiro, E. L. Sanchez, and S. S. Santhe: Oxycyclopropanes in Organochemical Synthesis. Total Synthesis of (i)-a-Cuparenone and (±)-β-Vetivone. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 100, 1267 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 347.
    Yoshioka, H., W. Renold, N. H. Fischer, A. Higo, and T. J. Mabry: Sesquiterpene Lactones from Ambrosia confertiflora (Compositae). Phytochem. 9, 823 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 348.
    Zinsmeister, H. D., and R. Mues: The Flavonoid Chemistry of Bryophytes. Rev. Latinoamer. Quirn. 11, 23 (1980).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Asakawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of PharmacognosyTokushima Bunri UniversityTokushimaJapan

Personalised recommendations