The Biology of Muscle Transplantation

  • B. M. Carlson


After a long history of unsuccessful attempts, the free grafting of entire mammahan muscles has been accomphshed in both the research laboratory (Bosova, 1962; Studitsky, 1963, 1977; Carlson, 1978) and in clinical practice (Thompson, 1971). Although working completely independently of one another, Thompson and Studitsky devised similar grafting techniques. After considerable experience with various regeneration models, Studitsky (1963) elaborated the concept of the “plastic state”, a condition to which mammalian muscle must be reduced in order for massive amounts of regeneration to occur. Treatments leading to the plastic state are denervation or slicing trauma prior to whole muscle grafting, or mincing a fresh muscle into small (one mm3) fragments. According to Studitsky, the plastic state facilitates regeneration, which he considered to be the basis for the success of muscle grafts.


Satellite Cell Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle Spindle Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle Denervated Muscle 
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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. M. Carlson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Anatomy, 4622 Medical Sciences IIUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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