The first inducer of interferon to be discovered was a virus, influenza (Isaacs and Lindenmann, 1957). In the several years following this discovery, it became apparent that practically each cell-virus interaction attempted was capable of elaborating an interferon. In fact virologists were so diligently mixing viruses and cells to determine if the particular virus of their interest induced interferon, it was several years before anyone found out that substances other than viruses were capable of inducing interferons. In 1963, Isaacs and his associates demonstrated that “foreign” nonviral nucleic acids, either heterologous cell RNA or chemically-modified homologous cell RNA, could induce interferon production (Rotem, Cox and Isaacs, 1963; Isaacs, Cox and Rotem, 1963). In 1964, bacteria and bacterial endotoxins were found to induce interferons in chickens (Ho, 1964a; Youngner and Stinebring, 1964; Stinebring and Youngner, 1964) and the mold product statolon, from Penicillium stoloniferum (Kleinschmidt, Cline, and Murphy, 1964), was found to induce interferon in mice. It was later found that several intracellular microorganisms, such as TRIC agents (Hanna, Merigan, and Jawetz, 1967) and Toxoplasma gondii (Rytel and Jones, 1966) induced interferon in cell culture and in vivo. Then synthetic polyanions such as pyran copolymer (Regelson, 1967) and the double-stranded polyribonucleotides, polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid (poly rl-poly) (Field et al., 1967a) were added to the list, followed by immune recognition reactions (Green, Cooperband, and Kibrick, 1969) and the synthetic low molecular weight Compound tilorone hydrochloride, which was able to induce serum interferon in mice after oral administration (Krueger and Mayer, 1970; Mayer and Krueger, 1970).
KeywordsMigration Inhibitory Factor Newcastle Disease Virus Newcastle Disease Interferon Production Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus
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