The Regulation of Glucose Metabolism
In the fasting State the level of blood sugar in man is regulated at 60–100 mg%. Glucose breakdown and production run parallel to each other. The breakdown takes place for the most part by glycolysis, the so-called Embden-Meyerhoff chain and to a lesser degree by the pentose-phosphate cycle and the glycuronic acid pathway (Horekker 1967). According to Forster, Holldorf, and Falk (1968) the amount processed by the pentose-phosphate cycle is 2%, although in diabetes mellitus it can rise to 6%. The individual stages of glycolysis facilitate the gradual utilization of the energy which is stored in glucose. Enzymes catalyse the speed of the individual reaction. The fine and intrinsic cellular regulation results from the variations of the speed of reaction, whereby the concentration of the participants in the reaction rapidly modifies the activity of the enzymes. This autoregulation functions independently of nervous control and even in the absence of hormonal activity.
KeywordsGrowth Hormone Free Fatty Acid Insulin Secretion Glucose Metabolism Adrenal Medulla
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