Studies on IS DNA

  • J. Besemer
  • H. Chadwell
  • P. Habermann
  • D. Kubai-Maroni
  • D. Pfeifer
  • F. Schmidt
  • P. Starlinger
Conference paper
Part of the Topics in Infectious Diseases book series (TIDIS, volume 2)


IS-elements are unique, transposable DNA sequences lacking a trans-acting phenotype. They are detectable by the effects they exert in the cis position on adjacent genes at sites to which they are transposed by a rare illegitimate recombination event. These effects include mutation (of a gene, into which the IS-element is integrated), polar effects (of genes located distal to the IS-element, but in the same transcription unit), initiation of transcription of a silent gene (if an IS-element carrying a promoter is integrated in front of a gene that has lost its own promoter) and an increase in the frequency of a variety of chromosomal aberrations occurring in the vicinity of IS-elements. IS-elements play a role in the integration of plasmids into chromosomes (e.g. in the formation of Hfr strains by the integration of the F-plasmid) and some of them have been identified as part of transposons (= transposable DNA sequences carrying one or more genes, most of them coding for resistance to an antibiotic, and usually bordered by a DNA sequence, repeated at the end of the transposon directly or in inverted form). This repeated sequence has been identified as an IS-element in some cases. The properties of IS-elements have been reviewed in more detail elsewhere (1,2,3,4).


Integration Site Leader Sequence Elongation Reaction Inverted Form Heteroduplex Molecule 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Starlinger, P., Saedler, H. IS-elements in microorganisms. Current Topics in Microbiol. and Immunol. 75, 111 (1976)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Starlinger,,P. Transposable elements of DNA. In: Genetic Engineering, ed. A.M. Chakrabarty, in pressGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davidson, N., Deonier, R.C., Ohtsubo, E. The DNA sequence organization of F and F-primes and the sequences involved in Hfr formation. In: Microbiology (D. Schlessinger, ed.) 1974, American Society for Microbiol. Washington D.C. p. 56, 1975Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen, S.N. Transposable genetic elements and plasmid evolution. Nature 263, 731 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jordan, E., Saedler, H., Starlinger, P. Oo-and strong polar mutations in the gal operon are insertions. Molec. Gen.Genet. 102, 353 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shapiro, J.A. Mutations caused by the insertion of genetic material into the galactose operon of Escherichia coli. J.Mol.Biol. 40, 93 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Michaelis, G., Saedler, H., Venkov, P., Starlinger, P. Two insertions in the galactose operon having different sizes but homologous DNA sequences. Molec.Gen.Genet. 104, 371 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hirsch, H.J., Saedler, H., Starlinger, P. Insertion mutations in the control region of the galactose operon of E. coli. II. Physical characterization of the mutations. Molec.Gen.Genet. 115, 266 (1972)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shapiro, J.A., MacHattie, L., Eron, L., Ippen, K., Beckwith, J. Isolation of pure lac operon DNA. Nature (Lond) 224, 768 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hirsch, H.J., Starlinger, P., Brachet, P. Two kinds of insertions in bacterial genes. Molec.Gen.Genet. 119, 191 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fiandt, M., Szybalski, W., Malamy, M.H. Polar mutations in lac, gal and phage a consist of a few DNA sequences inserted with either orientation. Molec.Gen.Genet. 119, 223 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jordan, E., Saedler, H., Starlinger, P. Strong polar mutations in the transferase gene of the galactose operon in E. coli. Molec.Gen.Genet. l00, 296 (1976)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pfeifer, D., Kubai-Maroni, D., Habermann, P. Specific sites for integration of IS-elements within the transferase gene of the galactose operon of E. coli. In: DNA insertions, plasmids and episomes, eds. A. Bukhari, J. Shapiro, S. Adhya, New York, Cold Spring Harbor LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Shapiro, J.A., Adhya, S.L. The galactose operon of E. coli K-12. II. A deletion analysis of operon structure and polarity. Genetics 62, 249 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shimada, K., Weissberg, R.A., Gottesman, M.E. Prophage lambda at unusual chromosomal locations. II. Mutations induced by bacteriophage lambda in Escherichia coli K12. J.Mol.Biol. 80, 297 (1973)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Schmidt, F., Besemer, J., Starlinger, P. The isolation of IS1 and IS2 DNA. Molec.Gen.Genet. 145, 145 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sanger, F., Donelson, J.E., Coulson, A.R., Kössel, H., Fischer, D. Determination of a nucleotide sequence in bacteriophage fl DNA by primed synthesis with DNA polymerase. J.Mol.Biol. 90, 315 (1974)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brownlee, G.G., Sanger, F. Chromatography of 32P-labelled oligonucleotides on thin layers of DEAE-cellulose. Eur. J.Biochem. 11, 395 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Horiuchi, K., Zinder, N.D. Cleavage of bacteriophage fl DNA by the restriction enzyme of Escherichia coli B. Proc.nat.Acad.Sci. (USA) 69, 3220 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Besemer
  • H. Chadwell
  • P. Habermann
  • D. Kubai-Maroni
  • D. Pfeifer
  • F. Schmidt
  • P. Starlinger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations