Forming of Structural Clay Products

  • Wayne Ernest Brownell
Part of the Applied Mineralogy book series (MINERALOGY, volume 9)


After preparation of the raw materials with regard to composition and particle size, structural clay products are usually formed in the plastic state. This means that water is added to the raw materials to produce the proper consistency and wet strength. In this process peculiar things happen that create the really unique plasticity of clays. We find that as water is added to dry clay there is as much or more of a change in the properties of the water as there appears to be in the alteration of the clay into a plastic, formable mass. For this reason it is necessary for us to pause here to look at the structure and properties of water before discussing the interactions between clay and water in an attempt to explain plasticity.


Clay Particle Extrusion Pressure Sewer Pipe Plastic Clay Plastic Strength 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bernal, J. D., and R. H. Fowler: A theory of water and ionic solution with particular reference to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions. J. Chem. Phys. 1, 515–48 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Forslind, E.: A theory of water. Royal Inst. Cement and Mortar, Bull. No. 16, Stockholm, 1951.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Linnett, J. W., and A. J. Poe: Directed valency in elements of the first short period. Trans. Faraday Soc. 47, 1033–44 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Runnels, L. K.: Ice. Sci. Am. 215, 118–26 (1966).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Morgan, J., and B. E. Warren: X-ray analysis of the structure of water. J. Chem. Phys. 6, 666–73 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hunt, J. P.: Metal Ions in Aqueous Solution. New York: W. A. Benjamin, Inc. 1963.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weyl, W. A.: Surface structure of water and some of its physical and chemical manifestations. J. Colloid Sci. 6, 389–405 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hendricks, S. B., and M. F. Jefferson: Structure of kaolin and talc-pyrophyllite hydrates and their bearing on water sorption of clays. Am. Min. 23, 863–75 (1938).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Alexander, L. T., and T. M. Shaw: Determination of ice-water relationships by measurement of dielectric constant changes. J. Phys. Chem. 41, 955–60 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bodman, G. B., and P. R. Day: Freezing points of a group of California soils and their extracted clays. Soil Sci. 55, 225–46 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grimshaw, R. W.: The Chemistry and Physics of Clays..., 4th Ed. New York: Wiley-I nterscience. 1971.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gouy, G.: Sur la constitution de la charge électrique âla surface d’un électrolyte. Ann. Phys. (Paris) 4, 457–68 (1910).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lawrence, W. G.: Theory of ion exchange and development of charge in kaolinitewater systems. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 41, 136–40 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    van Olphen, H.: An Introduction to Clay Colloid Chemistry. New York: Inter-science Publishers. 1963.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Button, D. D.: The Effect of Temperature on the Charge of Kaolinite Particles in H2O Suspensions, Ph. D. Diss., N.Y. State College of Ceramics, Alfred Univ., April, 1963.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Button, D. D., and W. G. Lawrence: Effect of temperature on the charge of kaolinite particles in water. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 47, 503–9 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grim, R. E.: Clay Mineralogy, 2nd Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. 1968.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mackenzie, R. C.: Density of water sorbed on montmorillonite. Nature 181, 334 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Macey, H. H.: Clay-water relationships. Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 52, 625–56 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Grim, R. E.: Some fundamental factors influencing the properties of soil materials. Proc. 2nd Intern. Congr. Soil Mech. 3, 8–12 (1948).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kingery, W. D., and J. Francl: Fundamental study of clay: XIII. Drying behavior and plastic properties. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 37, 596–602 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lawrence, W. G.: Plastic Properties, in Clay-Water Systems, W. G. Lawrence, ed. Alfred, N.Y.: Alfred University. 1965.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    West, R.: The Plastic Behavior of Some Clays, in Clay-Water Systems, W. G. Lawrence, ed. Alfred, N.Y.: Alfred University. 1965.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Macey, H. H.: Experiments on plasticity. Trans. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 43, 5–28 (1944).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bloor, E. C.: Plasticity: a critical survey. Trans. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 56, 423–81 (1957).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bloor, E. C.: Plasticity in theory and practice. Trans. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 58, 429–53 (1959).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Buessem, W. R., and B. Nagy: The Mechanism of the Deformation of Clay. Nat. Acad. Sci: Nat. Res. Coun. Pub. 327, Clay and Clay Minerals, 1954, pp 480–91.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kellogg, B. C., and T. J. Sonneville: Rheological Properties of Plastic Clay and Slip with Respect to Flocculation and Deflocculation, B. S. Thesis, N.Y. State College of Ceramics, Alfred University, May, 1974.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Astbury, N. F.: A plasticity model. Trans. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 62, 1–18 (1962).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pyle, R. E., and P. R. Jones: The effects of wetting agents on the physical properties of clay bodies. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 31, 233–36 (1952).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Robinson, G. C., and J. J. Keilen: The role of water in extrusion and its modification by a surface-active chemical. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 36, 422–30 (1957).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hogue, C. H.: Evaluation and effects of additives in brick making. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 49, 1052–56 (1970).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hodgkinson, H. R.: The shaping and preparation of clay in Germany. J. Brit. Ceram. Soc. 7, 8–12 (1970).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tatnall, R. F.: Globe Brick Co. Achieves automatic pugging. Ceram. Age 78, 27–30 (1962).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Connor, J. H.: Mechanism of pugging processes. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 45, 183–86 (1966).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Blume, A. J.: Extrusion die design. Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 51, 174 (1972).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hodgkinson, H. R.: The mechanics of extrusion. Claycraft 36, 42–48 (1962).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wayne Ernest Brownell
    • 1
  1. 1.New York State College of Ceramics at Alfred UniversityAlfredUSA

Personalised recommendations