Morphological Criteria for the Differentiation of Synapses in Vertebrates

  • K. H. Andres
Part of the Journal of Neural Transmission book series (NEURAL SUPPL, volume 12)


The study of synapses is a major area of research in the field of neurobiology and neuropharmacology today. According to their function the synapses are considered by physiologists to be either electrical or chemical (Fig. 1). The chemical synapses have either an excitatory or inhibitory function. The various nomenclatures have as a common basis the connections between the different systems, for example sensory-neuronal (Figs. 2, 3), interneuronal (Fig. 1), neuromuscular, neuroglandular and neurohumoral (Fig. 4). Since in the neurohumoral synapse a direct contact does not exist between the nerve cell and the effector system, Scharrer (1969 a) has suggested that the term synapsoid connection should be used instead of synapses. Naturally the chemical synapses are the most important in the area of neurochemistry and neuropharmacology and are differentiated according to the nature of the transmitter substances.


Olfactory Bulb Synaptic Vesicle Morphological Criterion Membrane Complex Coated Vesicle 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1975

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. H. Andres
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Anatomie IIRuhr-UniversitätBochumFederal Republic of Germany

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