For many years, the identification of tumor hypoxia, its systematic characterization and the assessment of its clinical relevance were not possible due to the lack of methods suitable for the routine measurement of intratumoral oxygen tensions in patients. In the late 1980s, a novel and clinically applicable standardized procedure was established enabling the determination of tumor oxygenation in accessible primary tumors, local recurrences, and metastatic lesions in patients using a computerized polarographic needle electrode system (Vaupel et al. 1991; Höckel et al. 1991). Within a relatively short period of time, the significance of tumor oxygenation for therapy outcome became evident in numerous experimental and clinical studies (for a review see Vaupel and Kelleher 1999).


Uterine Cervix Oxygenation Status Tumor Hypoxia Squamous Cell Carcinoma Therapeutic Resistance 
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© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Physiology and PathophysiologyUniversity of MainzMainzGermany
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity of LeipzigLeipzigGermany

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