Optimal level of hemoglobin in cancer patients

  • M. R. Nowrousian


In human beings, the hemoglobin level is dependent on sex and age. Women usually have a lower hemoglobin level than men, and there is evidence of a decrease in hemoglobin level with increasing age (Nilsson-Ehle et al. 2000; Rushton et al. 2001). In men hemoglobin level normally ranges between 13.3–17.7 g/dl and in women between 11.7–15.7 g/dl (Williams 1988; Fairbanks and Tefferi 2000). According to the World Health Organization, anemia is defined as hemoglobin level <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women (World Health Organization 1968). Clinical and epidemiological studies show that anemia is generally associated with increased mortality, even in elderly persons in the general population (Izaks et al. 1999; Collins et al. 2000; Caro et al. 2001).


Hemoglobin Level Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Nephrol Dial Transplant Globin Level Target Hemoglobin Level 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine (Cancer Research), West German Cancer CenterUniversity of Essen Medical SchoolEssenGermany

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