Asthma pp 1-11 | Cite as

T cells and other mononuclear cells in asthma

  • L. W. Poulter
  • C. Power
  • C. Hutter
  • S. Sreenan
  • C. Burke
Conference paper


There is now a significant body of evidence suggesting that asthma should be viewed as a chronic inflammatory disease. The chronic inflammation (present even in stable asthmatics) exhibits the characteristics of a T-cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Within this reaction, activation of TH2-like T cell clones producing an excess of IL4 and IL5 may promote an over stimulation of IgE and link the T cell aberration to the immediate hypersensitivity reaction that causes the acute episodes of bronchospasm and eosinophil accumulation. This dysfunction in T cell regulation may result from a loss of local suppressor mechanisms mediated by a subset of lung macrophages. This hypothesis is represented schematically in Fig 4.


Bronchial Wall Bronchial Biopsy Lung Macrophage Stable Asthmatic Royal Free Hospital 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

T-Zellen und andere mononukleäre Zellen beim Asthma


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Burrows B, Martinez FD, Halnen M, Barbee RA, Chine MG (1989) Association of asthma with serum IgE levels and skin test reactivity to allergens. N Engl J Med 320: 271–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Finnerty JP, Harvey A, Holgate ST (1992) The relative contributions of histamine and prostanoids to bronchoconstriction provoked by isocapnic hyperventilation in asthma. Eur Respir J 5: 323–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Toogood JH (1990) Some clinical aspects of the pharmacotherapy of rhinitis and asthma. In: Dahl R, Mygind U, Pipkom U (eds) Rhinitis and asthma: similarities and differences. Copenhagen: Munksgaard, pp 289–302Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beasley R, Roche WR, Roberts JA, Holgate St (1989) Cellular events in the bronchi in mild asthma and after bronchial provocation. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 806–817PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wardlaw AJ, Dunnette S, Gleich GJ, Collins JV, Kay AB (1988) Eosinophils and mast cells in bronchoalveolar lavage in mild asthma: relationship to bronchial hyperreactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 137: 62–69PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Djukanovic R, Wilson JW, Britten KM, Wilson SJ, Walls AF, Roche WR, Horwath PH, Holgate ST (1990) Quantitation of mast cells and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa of symptomatic atopic asthmatics and healthy control subjects using immunohistochemistry. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 863–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Askenase PW, van Loveren H (1983) Delayed type hypersensitivity: activation of mast cells by antigenspecific T cell factors. Immunol Today 4: 259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pene J, Rousset F, Briere F, Chretien I, Bonnefoy JY, Spits H, Yokota T, Arai N, Arai K, Banchereau J, JE De Vries (1988) IgE production by normal human lymphocytes is induced by interleukin 4 and suppressed by inter-ferons and prostaglandin E2. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6880PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dunnill MS (1978) The pathology of asthma. In: Middleton E, Reed DE, Ellis EF (eds) St. Louis CV Mosby: 678–686Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Metzger WF, Zavola D, Richerson HB et al (1987) Local allergen challenge and bronchoalveolar lavage of allergic asthmatic lungs. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 435–440Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laitinen LA, Heino M, Laitinen T (1985) Damage of the airway epithelium and bronchial reactivity in patients with asthma. Am Rev Resp Dis 131: 599–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Poulter LW, Power C, Burke C (1990) The relationship between bronchial immuno-pathology and hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Eur Respir J 3: 792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Corrigan CJ, Hartnell A, Kay AB (1988) T-lymphocyte activation in acute severe asthma. Lancet i: 1129–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O’Hehir RE, Eckels DD, Frew AJ, Kay AB, Lamb JR (1988) MHC class II restriction of cloned human T lymphocytes reactive with Dermatophagoides farinae. Immunology 64: 627–631PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wierenga EA, Snoek M, DeGroot C, Chretien I, Bos JD, Jansen HM, Kapsenberg ML (1990) Evidence for compartmentalization of functional subsets of CD4+ T lymphocytes in atopic patients. J Immunol 144: 4651–1656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Robinson DS, Hamid Q, Ying S, Tsicopoulos A, Barkin J, Bentley AM, Corrigan C, Durham SR, Kay AB (1992) Predominant TH2 — like bronchoalveolar lavage T lymphocyte population in atopic asthma. N Engl J Med 326: 298–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wierenga EA, Snoek M, Bos Jan D, Jansen HM, Kapsenberg ML (1990) Comparison of diversity and function of housedust mite specific T lymphocyte clones from atopic and non atopic donors. Eur J Immunol 20: 1519–1526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Poulter LW (1991) Changes in lung macrophages during disease. FEMS, Micro Immunol 64: 327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ainslie G, Poulter LW, duBois RM (1989) Relation between immunocytological features of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and clinical indices in sarcoidosis. Thorax 44: 501PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holt PG (1986) Down regulation of immune responses in the lower respiratory tract: role of alveolar macrophages. Clin Exp Immunol 63: 261–270PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holt PG, Schon MA, Oliver J (1988) MHC class II antigen bearing dendritic cells in pulmonary tissues of the rat, regulation presentation activity by endogenous macrophage populations. J Exp Med 167: 262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Holt PG, McMenamin C, Schon-Hegrad MA, Strichland D, Nelson D, Wilkes L, Bilyk N, Oliver J, Holt BJ, McMenamin PG (1991) Immunoregulation of asthma: control of T lymphocyte activation in the respiratory tract. Eur Respir J 4 [Suppl 13]: 6–15Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holt PG (1993) Macrophage: Dendritic cell interaction in regulation of the IgE response in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy (in press)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Spiteri MA, Poulter LW (1991) Characterisation of immune inducer and suppressor macrophages from the normal human lung. Clin Exp Immunol 83: 157PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Spiteri MA, Clarke SW, Poulter LW (1992) Alveolar macrophages that suppress T cell responses may be crucialto the pathogenetic outcome of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Eur Resp J 5: 394–403Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Poulter LW, Campbell DA, Munro C, Janossy G (1986) Discrimination of human macrophages and dendritic cells using monoclonal antibodies. Scand J Immunol 24: 351PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hutter C, Poulter LW (1993) The balance of macrophage subsets may be customised at mucosal surfaces (in press)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Allison MC, Poulter LW (1991) Changes in phenotypically distinct mucosal macrophage populations may be a prerequisite for the development of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Immunol 85: 504–509PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. W. Poulter
    • 1
  • C. Power
    • 2
  • C. Hutter
    • 3
  • S. Sreenan
    • 2
  • C. Burke
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Clinical ImmunologyRoyal Free Hospital School of MedicineLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Respiratory MedicineJames Connolly Memorial HospitalDublinIreland
  3. 3.2nd Medical DepartmentWilhelminenspitalViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations