The History of Dental Anthropology

  • Kurt W. Alt
  • C. Loring Brace
  • Jens C. Türp


Among the diverse tasks of the human dentition, the uptake and crushing of food is doubtlessly the most characteristic. The English Victorian naturalist Richard Owen (1804–1892) underscored the importance of this function in the introduction to his classic treatise Odontography (1840–1845): “Teeth are firm substances attached to the parities of the beginning of the alimentary canal, adapted for seizing, lacerating, dividing and triturating the food, and are the chief agents in the mechanical part of digestive function”. This function, however, did not emerge until a late phase of evolution. Before that time, primitive, tooth-like structures or elements such as gill traps had facilitated food uptake (Gutmann 1997). Other utilizations of the teeth are secondary, for instance the use of teeth as weapon or tool, as a structure for the characterization of age and sex, or as ornamental objects (Kanner and Remy 1924; Alt et al. 1990; Kelley and Larsen 1991; Alt and Pichler, this volume). Additionally, among humans teeth have great significance for vocal articulation (Schumacher et al. 1990) and for the esthetics of the appearance (Alt 1994b).


Human Tooth Tooth Wear Comparative Anatomy Physical Anthropology Tooth Crown 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Acśadi G, Nemeskéri J (1957) Paläodemographische Probleme am Beispiel des frühmittelalterlichen Gräberfeldes von Halimba-Cseres. Homo 8: 133–148.Google Scholar
  2. Adloff P (1908) Das Gebiß des Menschen und der Anthropomorphen. Vergleichend anatomische Untersuchungen. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Adloff P (1916) Die Entwicklung des Zahnsystems der Säugetiere und des Menschen. Eine Kritik der Dimertheorie von Bolk. Meusser, Berlin.Google Scholar
  4. Ahrens H (1913) Die Entwicklung der menschlichen Zähne. Bergmann, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  5. Aichel O (1917) Die Beurteilung der rezenten und prähistorischen Menschen nach der Zahnform. Z Morph Anthrop 20: 457–550.Google Scholar
  6. Aiello L, Dean C (1990) An Introduction to Human Evolutionary Anatomy. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  7. Alexandersen V (1994) AI Dahlberg: Thoughts from Denmark. Dent Anthrop Newsletter 8 (2): 9.Google Scholar
  8. Alt KW (1994a) Prothetics, periodontal therapy and conservative dentistry in the eighteenth century. Bull Hist Dent 42: 67–70.Google Scholar
  9. Alt KW (1994b) Die historische Entwicklung der zahnärztlichen Prothetik. In: Strub JR, Türp JC, Witkowski SWJ, Hürzeler MB, Kern M (Hrsg) Curriculum Prothetik, Bd. 1. Quintessenz, Berlin, p. 37–61.Google Scholar
  10. Alt KW (1997a) Odontologische Verwandtschaftsanalyse. Individuelle Charakteristika der Zähne in ihrer Bedeutung für Anthropologie, Archäologie und Rechtsmedizin. Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  11. Alt KW (1997b) Kategorien und Konzepte dentalanthropologischer Studien. In: Alt KW, Türp JC (eds) Die Evolution der Zähne. Phylogenie — Ontogenie — Variation. Quintessenz, Berlin, p. 679–687.Google Scholar
  12. Alt KW (1997c) Die historische Entwicklung der Odontologie und Dental-Anthropologie. In: Alt KW, Türp JC (eds) Die Evolution der Zähne. Phylogenie — Ontogenie — Variation. Quintessenz, Berlin, p. 47–76.Google Scholar
  13. Alt KW, Kogkapan C (1993) Artificial tooth-neck grooving in living and prehistoric population. Homo 44: 5–29.Google Scholar
  14. Alt KW, Parsche F, Pähl MW, Ziegelmayer G (1990) Gebißdeformation als Körperschmuck - Verbreitung, Motive und Hintergründe. Zahnärztl Mitt 80: 2448–2456.Google Scholar
  15. Alt KW, Türp JC (eds) (1997a) Die Evolution der Zähne. Phylogenie — Ontogenie — Variation. Quintessenz, Berlin.Google Scholar
  16. Alt KW, Türp JC (1997b) Vergleichende Odontologie und Dental-Anthropologie. Bedeutung — Positionen — Strategien. In: Alt KW, Türp JC (eds) Die Evolution der Zähne. Phylogenie — Ontogenie — Variation. Quintessenz, Berlin, p. 31–46.Google Scholar
  17. Alt KW, Vach W (1991) The reconstruction of genetic kinship in prehistoric burial complexes — problems and statistics. In: Bock HH, Ihm P (eds) Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organisation. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p. 299–310.Google Scholar
  18. Alt KW, Vach W (1995) Odontologie kinship analysis in skeletal remains — Concepts, methods, and results. Forensic Sci Int 74: 99–113.Google Scholar
  19. Bailey SE (1996) Minutes from the 1996 Annual Meeting of the Dental Anthropology Association (DAA), Raleigh-Durham, April 11, 1996. Report from the Secretary - Tresurer. Dent Anthrop Newsl 10 (3), 20–21.Google Scholar
  20. Baume R (1882) Odontologische Forschungen I. Versuch einer Entwicklungsgeschichte des Gebisses. Felix, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  21. Berkovitz BKB, Holland GR, Moxham BJ (1978) A Colour Atlas and Textbook of Oral Anatomy. Wolfe, London.Google Scholar
  22. Berkovitz BKB, Holland GR, Moxham BJ (1992) Color Atlas and Text of Oral Anatomy, Histology, and Embryology. Mosby, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  23. Bolk L (1913) Die Ontogenie der Primatenzähne. Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  24. Bolk L (1914) Die Morphogenie der Primatenzähne. Fischer, Jena.Google Scholar
  25. Bourdelle E, Bennejeant C, Wicart A (1937) Anatomie et physiologie bucco-dentaires. Anatomie Dentaire Comparee. Bailliere, Paris.Google Scholar
  26. Boyde A (1964) The Structure and Development of Mammalian Enamel. Phil Thesis, London.Google Scholar
  27. Boyde A, Martin L (1984) The microstructure of primate dental enamel. In: Chivers DJ, Wood BA, Bilsborough A (eds) Food Aquisition and Processing in Primates. Plenum Press, New York, p. 341–368.Google Scholar
  28. Brabant H (1965) Observations sur l’évolution de la denture temporaire humaine en Europe occidentale. Bull Group Int Rech Sc Stomat 8: 235–302.Google Scholar
  29. Brabant H (1967) Comparison on the characteristics and anomalies of the deciduous and the permanent dentition. J Dent Res 46: Suppl 5, 897–902.Google Scholar
  30. Brabant H, Klees L, Werelds RJ (1958) Anomalies, Mutilations et Tumeurs des Dents Humaines. Prélat, Paris.Google Scholar
  31. Brabant H, Twiesselmann F (1964) Observations sur l’évolution de la denture permanente humaine en Europe occidentale. Bull Group Int Rech Sc Stomat 7: 11–84.Google Scholar
  32. Brace CL (1979) Krapina, “classic” Neanderthals, and the evolution of the European face. J Hum Evol 8: 527–550.Google Scholar
  33. Brace CL (1995) Trends in the evolution of human tooth size. In: Moggi-Cecchi J (ed) Aspects of Dental Biology: Palaeontology, Anthropology and Evolution. Istituto di Anthropologia, Florence, p. 437–446.Google Scholar
  34. Brace CL, Rosenberg KR, Hunt KD (1987) Gradual change in human tooth size in the late Pleistocene and post-Pleistocene. Evolution 41: 705–720.Google Scholar
  35. Brace CL, Smith SL, Hunt KD (1991) What big teeth you had Grandma! Human tooth size, past and present. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, p. 33–57.Google Scholar
  36. Broca P (1879) Instructions relatives á l’étude anthropologique du système dentaire. Bull Soc Anthrop Paris 2: 128–163.Google Scholar
  37. Brothwell DR (ed) (1963) Dental Anthropology. Pergamon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  38. Brothwell DR (ed) (1990) Dental Anthropology. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  39. Brown T, Molnar S (eds) (1992) Craniofacial Variation in Pacific Populations. Univ Press, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  40. Butler PM (1941) A theory of the evolution of mammalian molar teeth. Am J Sci 239: 421–450.Google Scholar
  41. Butler PM (1978) Molar cusp nomenclature and homology. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, Function and Evolution of Teeth. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  42. Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) (1978) Development, Function, and Evolution of Teeth. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  43. Campbell TD (1925) Dentition and Palate of the Australian Aborigines. Hassell Press, Adelaide.Google Scholar
  44. Carlsen O (1987) Dental Morphology. Munksgaard, Copenhagen.Google Scholar
  45. Cole S (1949) A History of Comparative Anatomy. From Aristotle to the Eighteenth Century. Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  46. Colyer JF, Sprawson E (1938) Dental Surgery and Pathology. Longmans-Green, London.Google Scholar
  47. Cope ED (1874) On the homologies and origin of the types of molar teeth of mammalia Educabilia. J Acad Nat Sci Philadelphia NS 8, Pt I: 71–89.Google Scholar
  48. Cope ED (1883) Note on the trituberculate type of superior molar and the origin of the quadrituberculate. Am Naturalist 17: 407–408.Google Scholar
  49. Covert HH, Kay RF (1981) Dental micro wear and diet: Implications for determining the feeding behaviours of extinct primates, with a comment on the dietary pattern of Sivapithecus. Am J Phys Anthrop 55: 331–336.Google Scholar
  50. Crompton AW, Hiemae K (1970) Molar occlusion and mandibular movements during occlusion in the American oppossum, Didelphis marsupialis L. Zool J Linn Soc 49: 21–47.Google Scholar
  51. Cruwys E, Foley R (eds) (1986) Teeth and Anthropology. BAR Int Ser 291, London.Google Scholar
  52. Cuvier G (1835–1846) Leçons d’Anatomie Comparée de Georges Cuvier. Crochard, Paris.Google Scholar
  53. Daegling DJ, Ravosa MJ, Johnson KR, Hylander WL (1992) Influence of teeth, alveoli, and periodontal ligaments on torsional rigidity in human mandibles. Am J Phys Anthrop 89: 59–72.Google Scholar
  54. Dahlberg AA (1945) The changing dentition of man. Am J Phys Anthrop 8: 15–25.Google Scholar
  55. Dahlberg AA (1951) The dentition of the American Indian. In: Laughlin WS (ed) The Physical Anthropology of the American Indian. Viking Fund, New York, p. 138–176.Google Scholar
  56. Dahlberg AA (ed) (1967) Proceedings on the International Symposium on Dental Morphology. J Dent Res 46: 769–992.Google Scholar
  57. Dahlberg AA (ed) (1971) Dental Morphology and Evolution. Univ Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  58. Dahlberg AA (1991) Historical perspective of dental anthropology. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  59. Dahlberg AA, Graber TM (eds) (1977) Orofacial Growth and Development. Hague, Mouton.Google Scholar
  60. Dempsey PJ, Townsend GC, Martin NG, Neale MC (1995) Genetic covariance structure of incisor crown size in twins. J Dent Res 74: 1389–1398.Google Scholar
  61. Dependorf T (1898) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Zahnsystems der Marsupialia. Denkschr Med Naturwiss Ges Jena, Bd. 6, Jena.Google Scholar
  62. Ebner V von (1890/91) Histologie der Zähne mit Einschluß der Histogenese. In: Scheff’s Handbuch für Zahnheilkunde. Bd. 1. Holder, Wien, p. 209–262.Google Scholar
  63. Eidmann H (1923) Die Entwicklungsgeschichte der Zähne des Menschen. Meusser, Berlin.Google Scholar
  64. Euler H (1939) Die Anomalien, Fehlbildungen und Verstümmelungen der menschlichen Zähne. Lehmanns, München.Google Scholar
  65. Foley R, Cruwys E (1986) Dental anthropology: Problems and perspectives. In: Cruwys E, Foley R (eds) Teeth and Anthropology. BAR Int Ser 291, London, p. 1–20.Google Scholar
  66. Fränkel M (1835) De penetori dentium humaniorum structure observationes (Beob-achtungen über die innere Struktur der Zähne). Nat Diss, Preßburg.Google Scholar
  67. Frayer DW (1978) The Evolution of the Dentition in Upper Paleolithic and Mesolithic Europe. Lawrence, Kansas.Google Scholar
  68. Friant M (1933) Contribution à l’étude de la différenciation des dents jugale chez les mammifères. Publ Mus Natn Hist Nat Paris 1: 1–132.Google Scholar
  69. Frisch JE (1965) Trends in the Evolution of the Hominoid Dentition. Bibliotheca Primatologica, Fasc 3. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  70. Gantt DG (1977) Enamel of Primate Teeth: Its Thickness and Structure with Reference to Functional and Phyletic Implications. PhD Thesis, St Louis.Google Scholar
  71. Garn SM (1977) Genetics of dental development. In: McNamara JA (ed) The Biology of Occlusal Development. Center for Human Growth and Development, Ann Arbor, p. 13–28.Google Scholar
  72. Gidley J (1906) Evidence bearing on tooth-cusp development. Proc Wash Acad Sci 8: 91–110.Google Scholar
  73. Giebel CG (1855) Odontographie. Vergleichende Darstellung des Zahnsystems der lebenden und fossilen Wirbeltiere. Abel, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  74. Goose DH (1971) The inheritance of tooth size in British families. In: Dahlberg AA (ed) Dental Morphology and Evolution. Univ Press, Chicago, p. 144–149.Google Scholar
  75. Gregory WK (1916) Studies in the evolution of primates. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 35: 239–355.Google Scholar
  76. Gregory WK (1922) The Origin and Evolution of the Human Dentition. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  77. Guerini V (1909) History of Dentistry. Lea and Febinger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  78. Gutmann W (1997) Chordaten-Konstruktionen und ihre Evolution. Von der Kiemenreuse zum zahnbesetzten Kieferapparat. In: Alt KW, Türp JC (eds) Die Evolution der Zähne. Phylogenie — Ontogenie — Variation. Quintessenz, Berlin, p. 363–390.Google Scholar
  79. Haeussler A (1985) Dental Morphology of New World, Eastern Siberia, and Soviet Central Asia Population. MA Thesis, Tempe AR.Google Scholar
  80. Haeussler A, Turner CG (1992) The dentition of Central Asia and the quest for New World ancestors. In: Lukacs JR (ed) Culture, Ecology, and Dental Anthropology. J Hum Evol Special Issue 2: 273–297.Google Scholar
  81. Hellman M (1928) Racial characters in human dentitions. Proc Am Philos Soc 67: 157–174.Google Scholar
  82. Helmcke HJ (1953) Atlas des menschlichen Zahnes im elektronenmikroskopischen Bild. Transmare-Photo, Berlin.Google Scholar
  83. Henke W, Rothe H (1994) Paläanthropologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  84. Hertwig O (1874) Über Bau und Entwicklung der Placoidschuppen und der Zähne der Selachier. Z Naturwiss (Jena) 8: 331–404.Google Scholar
  85. Heymer A (1986) Öko-physiologische Zahnabrasion bei den Bayaka-Pygmäen in Zentralafrika. Curare 9: 51–58.Google Scholar
  86. Hillson S (1986) Teeth. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  87. Hillson S (1996) Dental Anthropology. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  88. Hoffmann-Axthelm W (1985) The History of Dentistry. Quintessence, Chicago.Google Scholar
  89. Hollander GA (1992) Dental anthropology: A view into biological and cultural factors. PhD Thesis Fullerton/CA.Google Scholar
  90. Hrdlicka A (1911) Human dentition and teeth from evolutionary and racial standpoint. Dominion Dent J 23: 403–421.Google Scholar
  91. Hrdlička A (1920) Shovel-shaped teeth. Am J Phys Anthrop 3: 429–465Google Scholar
  92. Hrdlička A (1921) Further studies of tooth morphology. Am J Phys Anthrop 4: 141–176.Google Scholar
  93. Hunter J (1771) The Natural History of Teeth. London.Google Scholar
  94. Huxley TH (1853) On the development of the teeth and on the nature and importance of Nasmyths “persistent capsule”. Quart J Micr Sci 1: 149–164.Google Scholar
  95. Hylander WL, Johnson KR (1994) Jaw muscle function and wishboning of the mandible during mastication in macaques and baboons. Am J Phys Anthrop 94: 523–547.Google Scholar
  96. Hylander WL, Mayhall JT (1996) In memoriam Albert A. Dahlberg (1908–1993). Am J Phys Anthrop 99: 627–633.Google Scholar
  97. Irish JD (1993) Biological Affinities of Late Pleistocene Through Modern African Aboriginal Population. The Dental Evidence. PhD Diss, Tempe AR.Google Scholar
  98. Isçan MY (1989) The emergence of Dental Anthropology. Am J Phys Anthrop 78: 1.Google Scholar
  99. Isçan MY (ed) (1989) Current directions in Dental Anthropology Symposium. Am J Phys Anthrop. 78: 1–122.Google Scholar
  100. Janis CM (1979) Aspects of the Evolution of Herbivory in Ungulate Mammals. PhD Thesis, Harvard Univ.Google Scholar
  101. Janis CM (1988) An estimation of tooth volume and hypsodonty indices in ungulate mammals and the correlation of these factors with dietary preference. In: Russell DE, Santoro JP, Sigogneua-Russell D (eds) Janis CM 53, Paris.Google Scholar
  102. de Jonge T (1917) Die Kronenstruktur der unteren Prämolaren und Molaren. Ein Beitrag zur Morphologie des menschlichen Gebisses. Med Diss, Zürich.Google Scholar
  103. de Jonge TE (1926) Die Dimerie der Frontzähne. Z Ges Anat Z Anat Entwickl Gesch 78: 277–307.Google Scholar
  104. Kanner L (1928) Folklore of the Teeth. MacMillan, New York.Google Scholar
  105. Kanner L, Remy CE (1924) Die Verwendung der Zähne außerhalb des Mundes bei den verschiedenen Völkern. Dtsch Mschr Zahnheilk 42: 573–578.Google Scholar
  106. Kay RF (1973) Mastication, Molar Tooth Structure and Diet in Primates. Phil Diss, Yale Univ.Google Scholar
  107. Kay RF (1978) Molar structure and diet in extant Cercopithecidae. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, Function, and Evolution of Teeth. Academic Press, London, p. 309–339.Google Scholar
  108. Keeler CE (1935) Heredity in dentistry. Dent Cosmos 77: 1147–1163.Google Scholar
  109. Keil A (1966) Grundzüge der Odontologie. Borntraeger, Berlin.Google Scholar
  110. Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) (1991) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  111. Kieser JA (1990) Human Adult Odontometrics. Univ Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  112. King R (1994) John Hunter and the natural history of the human teeth: dentistry, digestion, and the living principle. J Hist Med Allied Sci 49: 504–520.Google Scholar
  113. Klatsky M, Fisher RL (1953) The Human Masticatory Apparatus: An Introduction to Dental Anthropology. Dental Items of Interest Publ, Brooklyn.Google Scholar
  114. Koenigswald W von, Martin T, Pfretzschner HU (1993) Phylogenetic interpretation of enamal structures in mammal teeth: possibilities and problems. In: Szalay S, Novacek MJ, McKenna MC (eds) Mammal Phylogeny. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p. 303–314.Google Scholar
  115. Kölliker A von (1863) Die Entwicklung der Zahnsäckchen der Wiederkäuer. Z Wiss Zool 12: 455–460.Google Scholar
  116. Korkhaus G (1930) Die Vererbung der Kronenform und -große menschlicher Zähne. Z Anat 91: 594–617Google Scholar
  117. Kovacs I (1964) Contribution à l’étude des rapports entre le dévelopment et la morphologie des racines des dents humaines. Bull Group Int Rech Sc Stomat 7: 85–120.Google Scholar
  118. Kraus BS, Jordan RE (1965) The Human Dentition Before Birth. Lea and Febiger, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  119. Krogman WM (1927) Anthropological aspects of the human teeth and dentition. J Dent Res 7: 1–108.Google Scholar
  120. Kükenthal W (1892) Über den Ursprung und die Entwicklung der Säugetierzähne. Jenaische Z Naturwiss 26: 469–489.Google Scholar
  121. Kurtén B (1982) Teeth: Form, Function, and Evolution. Columbia Univ Press, New York.Google Scholar
  122. Lambert E (1877) Morphologie du système dentaire des races humaines. Bull Acad Roy Sci Belg 43: 559–603.Google Scholar
  123. Larsen CS, Kelley MA (1991) Introduction. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, p. 1–5.Google Scholar
  124. Lasker GW (1950) Genetic analysis of racial traits of the teeth. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Qunat Biol 15: 191–203.Google Scholar
  125. Lavelle CLB, Shellis RP, Poole DFG (1977) Evolutionary Changes to the Primate Skull and Dentition. Thomas, Springfield.Google Scholar
  126. Leche W (1895) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Zahnsystems der Säugetiere, Teil I, Ontogenie. Bibliotheca Zoologica, Heft 17.Google Scholar
  127. Leche W (1902) Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Zahnsystems der Säugetiere, Teil II, Phylogenie. Bibliotheca Zoologica, Heft 37.Google Scholar
  128. Lukacs JR (1983) Human dental remains from early Neolithic levels at Mehrgarh, Baluchistan. Curr Anthrop 24: 390–392.Google Scholar
  129. Lukacs JR (1993) Culture, Ecology and Dental Anthropology. Kamla-Raj, Delhi.Google Scholar
  130. Maier W (1978) Zur Evolution des Säugetiergebisses — typologische und konstruktions-morphologische Erklärungen. Natur und Museum 108: 288–300.Google Scholar
  131. Maier W (1980) Konstruktionsmorphologische Untersuchungen am Gebiß der rezenten Prosimiae (Primates). Abh Senckenb Naturf Ges 538: 1–158.Google Scholar
  132. Maier W (1984) Tooth morphology and dietary specialization. In: Chivers DJ, Wood BA, Bilsborough A (eds) Food Aquisition and Processing in Primates. Plenum Press, New York, p. 303–330.Google Scholar
  133. Mayhall JT (1992) Techniques for the study of dental morphology. In: Saunders SR, Katzenberg MA (eds) Skeletal Biology: Research Methods. Wiley-Liss, New York, p. 59–78.Google Scholar
  134. Miles AEW (1972) Teeth and Their Origins. Oxford Biology Readers. Nr. 21. Oxford Univ Press, London.Google Scholar
  135. Miles AEW (ed) (1967) Structural and Chemical Organisation of Teeth, Vol I. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  136. Milner GR, Larsen CS (1991) Teeth as artifacts of human behavior: intentional mutilation and accidental modification. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, p. 357–378.Google Scholar
  137. Moggi-Checchi JM (ed) (1995) Aspects of Dental Biology: Palaeontology, Anthropology, and Evolution. Pontecorboli, Florenz.Google Scholar
  138. Molnar S (1972) Tooth wear and culture: A survey of tooth functions among some prehistoric populations. Current Anthrop 13: 511–526.Google Scholar
  139. Molnar S, Richards L, McKee J, Molnar I (1989) Tooth wear in Australian aboriginal populations from the Murray Valley. Am J Phys Anthrop 79: 185–196.Google Scholar
  140. Moorrees CFA (1957) The Aleut Dentition. Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  141. Mühlreiter E (1870) Anatomie des menschlichen Gebisses. Felix, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  142. Nichol CR (1989) Complex segregation analysis of dental morphological variants. Am J Phys Anthrop 78: 37–59.Google Scholar
  143. Osborn HF (1888) The evolution of mammalian molars to and from the tritubercular type. Amer Nat 21: 1067.Google Scholar
  144. Osborn HF (1892) The history and homologies of the human molar cusps. Anat Anz 7: 740–747.Google Scholar
  145. Osborn HF (1895) The history of the cusps of the human molar teeth. Int Dent J 7: 55–65.Google Scholar
  146. Osborn HF (1907) Evolution of mammalian molar teeth to and from the triangular type. Macmillan, New York.Google Scholar
  147. Osborn JW (1973) Variations in structure and development of enamel. Oral Sci Rev 3: 3–83.Google Scholar
  148. Osborn JW (1995) A mechanical model stimulates the folding of the internal dental epithelium during cusp formation. In: Radlanksi RJ, Renz H (eds) Proc 10th Int Symp Dental Morphology. Brünne, Berlin, p. 22–26.Google Scholar
  149. Osborn JW, Ten Cate AR (1983) Advanced Dental Histology. Wright, Bristol.Google Scholar
  150. Owen R (1840–45) Odontography; Or, a Treatise on the Comparative Anatomy of the Teeth; Their Physiological Relations, Mode of Development, and Microscopic Structure, in the Vertebrate Animals. Bailliere, London.Google Scholar
  151. Pedersen PO (1949) The East Greenland Eskimo Dentition: Numerical variations and anatomy. Medd Grønl 142: 1–256.Google Scholar
  152. Peyer B (1968) Comparative Odontology. Univ Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  153. Pfretzschner HU (1992) Enamel micro structure and hypsodonty in large mammals. In: Smith P, Tchernov E (eds) Structure, Function and Evolution. Freund, London, p. 147–162.Google Scholar
  154. Pfretzschner HU (1993) Enamel microstructure in the phylogeny of the Equidae. J Vertebrate Paleont 13: 342–349.Google Scholar
  155. Pindborg JJ (1970) Pathology of the Dental Hard Tissue. Musgaard, Kopenhagen.Google Scholar
  156. Poole DFG (1976) Evolution of mastication. In: Anderson DJ, Matthews B (eds) Mastication. Wright, Bristol.Google Scholar
  157. Potter RHY, Corruccini RS, Green LJ (1981) Variance of occlusion traits in twins. J Craniofac Genet 1: 217–227.Google Scholar
  158. Radlanski RJ (1993) Contributions to the Development of Human Deciduous Tooth Primordia. Quintessence, Chicago.Google Scholar
  159. Radlanski RJ, Renz H (eds) (1995) Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Dental Morphology. Brünne, Berlin.Google Scholar
  160. Raschkow I (1835) Meletemata circa mammalium dentium evolutionem (Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung der Säugetierzähne). Med Diss, Preßburg.Google Scholar
  161. Reddy VR (ed) (1985) Dental Anthropology: Application and Methods. Inter-India Publ., New Delhi.Google Scholar
  162. Regnault F (1894) Variations dans la forme des dents suivant les races humaines. Bull Soc Anthrop Paris 4: Ser 5, 14–18.Google Scholar
  163. Remane A (1960) Zähne und Gebiss. In: Hofer H, Schultz AH, Starck D (Hrsg) Primatologia. Bd. III/2, Karger, Basel, p. 637–846.Google Scholar
  164. Rensberger JM (1973) An occlusion model for mastication and dental wear in herbivorous mammals. J Paleont 47: 515–528.Google Scholar
  165. Rensberger JM (1978) Scanning electron microscopy of wear and occlusal events in some small Herbivores. In: Butler PM, Joysey KA (eds) Development, Function, and Evolution of Teeth. Academic Press, London, p. 415–438.Google Scholar
  166. Retzius A (1837) Bemerkungen über den inneren Bau der Zähne mit besonderer Berücksichtigung auf den im Zahnknochen vorkommenden Röhrenbau. Arch Anat Phys, Berlin, Anat Abt 486–566.Google Scholar
  167. Richards LC, Townsend GC, Brown T, Burgess VB (1990) Dental arch morphology in south Australian twins. Arch Oral Biol 35: 983–989.Google Scholar
  168. Rieger S (1993) Untersuchungen zur Geschlechtsbestimmung der Individuen einer merowingerzeitlichen Skelettserie aus Baden-Württemberg anhand der Zahnmaße. Med Diss, Freiburg.Google Scholar
  169. Riethe P (1955) Zur Phylogenie des Primatengebisses. Verlag Kunst und Wissenschaft, Baden-Baden.Google Scholar
  170. Ritter R (1937) Über die Frage der Vererbung von Anomalien der Kiefer und Zähne. Meusser, Leipzig.Google Scholar
  171. Röse C (1892) Über die Entstehung und Formabänderungen der menschlichen Molaren. Anat Anz 7: 392–421.Google Scholar
  172. Russell DE, Santoro JP, Sigogneua-Russell D (1988) Teeth revisited. Mem Mus Natn Hist Nat C 53, Paris.Google Scholar
  173. Sakai T (1982) Morphogenesis of molar cusps and tubercles in certain primates. In: Kurten B (ed) Teeth: Form, Function, and Evolution. Columbia Univ Press, New York, p. 307–322.Google Scholar
  174. Schindewolf OH (1948) Wesen und Geschichte der Paläontologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  175. Schlosser M (1890/91) Die Differenzierung des Säugetiergebisses. Biol Centralbl 10: 238–252, 264–277.Google Scholar
  176. Schnutenhaus S (1993) Weltverteilung der Zahngrößen. Überprüfung der Eignung von Zahnmaßen für eine Taxonomie des Menschen. Med Diss, Ulm.Google Scholar
  177. Schreger BG (1800) Beitrag zur Geschichte der Zähne. Beitr Zergliederungskunst 1: 1–7.Google Scholar
  178. Schröder H (1906) Die künstliche Deformation des Gebisses. Abel, Greifswald.Google Scholar
  179. Schroeder HE (1991) Pathobiologie oraler Strukturen. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  180. Schulze C (1987) Anomalien und Mißbildungen der menschlichen Zähne. Quintessenz, Berlin.Google Scholar
  181. Schumacher GH, Schmidt H, Börnig H, Richter W (1990) Anatomie und Biochemie der Zähne. Fischer, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  182. Schwalbe G (1894) Über Theorien der Dentition. Anat Anz Jena, Erg. Heft 9: 5–45.Google Scholar
  183. Schwann T (1839) Mikroskopische Untersuchungen über die Übereinstimmung in der Struktur und dem Wachsthum der Thiere und Pflanzen. Sander, Berlin.Google Scholar
  184. Schwidetzky I (1988) Geschichte der Anthropologie. In: Knussmann R (Hrsg) Anthro¬pologie, Bd I, 1: Wesen und Methoden der Anthropologie. Fischer, Stuttgart, p. 47–127.Google Scholar
  185. Scott GR (1991) Dental anthropology. In: Dulbecco R (ed) Encyclopedia of Human Biology, Vol 2, Academic Press, San Diego, p. 789–804.Google Scholar
  186. Scott GR, Turner CG (1988) Dental anthropology. Ann Rev Anthropol 17: 99–126.Google Scholar
  187. Scott GR, Turner CG (1997) The Anthropology of Modern Human Teeth. Dental Morphology and Its Variation in Recent Human Populations. Cambridge Univ Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  188. Shobusowa M (1952) Vergleichende Untersuchungen über die Form der Schmelzprismen der Säugetiere. Okajimas Folia Anat Jap 24: 371–392.Google Scholar
  189. Simpson GG (1936) Studies of the earliest mammalian dentitions. Dent Cosmos 78: 791–800.Google Scholar
  190. Smith BH (1984) Patterns of molar wear in hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists. Am J Phys Anthrop 63: 39–56.Google Scholar
  191. Smith BH (1989) Growth and development and its significance for early hominid behavior. Ossa 14: 63–96.Google Scholar
  192. Smith BH (1991a) Dental development and the evolution of life history in the hominidae. Am J Phys Anthrop 86: 157–174.Google Scholar
  193. Smith BH (1991b) Standards of human tooth formation and dental age assessment. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, p. 143–168.Google Scholar
  194. Smith BH (1994a) Patterns of dental development in Homo, Australopithecus, Pan, and Gorilla. Am J Phys Anthrop 94: 307–325.Google Scholar
  195. Smith BH (1994b) Sequence of emergence of the permanent teeth in Macaca, Pan, Homo, and Australopithecus: Its evolutionary significance. Amer J Hum Biol 6: 61–76.Google Scholar
  196. Smith BH, Crummett TL, Brandt K (1994) Ages of eruption of primate teeth: A compendium for aging individuals and comparing life histories. Yearbook of Phys Anthrop 37: 177–231.Google Scholar
  197. Smith P and Zilberman U (1994) Thin enamel and other tooth components in Neanderthals and other hominids. Am J Phys Anthrop 95: 85–87.Google Scholar
  198. Smith P, Tchernov E (1992) Structure, Function, and Evolution of Teeth. Freund, London.Google Scholar
  199. Spears J, Crompton R (1995) Mechanics of food reduction in hominoid molars. In: Radlanksi RJ, Renz H (eds) Proc 10th Int Symp Dental Morphology. Brünne, Berlin, p. 387–390.Google Scholar
  200. Spencer MA, Demes B (1993) Biomechanical analysis of masticatory system configuration in Neandertals and Inuits. Am J Phys Anthrop 91: 1–20.Google Scholar
  201. Starck D (1982) Vergleichende Anatomie der Wirbeltiere auf evolutionsbiologischer Grundlage, Bd 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  202. Stewart RE, Prescott GH (1976) Oral Facial Genetics. Mosby, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  203. Swindler DR (1976) Dentition of Living Primates. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  204. Taylor RMS (1978) Variation in Morphology of Teeth. Thomas, Springfield.Google Scholar
  205. Teaford MF, Runestad JA (1992) Dental microwear and diet in Venezuelan primates. Am J Phys Anthrop 88: 347–364.Google Scholar
  206. Teaford MF, Walker A (1984) Qualitative differences in dental microwear between primate species with different diet and a comment on the presumed diet of Sivapithecus. Am J Phys Anthrop 64: 191–200.Google Scholar
  207. Thenius E (1989) Zähne und Gebiß der Säugetiere. Hb Zoologie Bd 8, Mammalia. De Gruyter, Berlin.Google Scholar
  208. Thompson A (1903) Ethnographie Odontology: The Inca Peruvians, [s. i.;s. 1.].Google Scholar
  209. Tomes C (1872) On the nature of the cuticula dentis (Nasmyth’s membrane). Quart J Micr Sci 12: 321–326.Google Scholar
  210. Tomes J (1887) A System of Dental Surgery. Lindsay and Blakiston, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  211. Topinard P (1892) De l’évolution des molaires et prémolaires chez les primates. Anthropologie Paris 3: 641–710.Google Scholar
  212. Townsend GC, Brown T (1978 a) Inheritance of tooth size in Australian aboriginals. Am J Phys Anthrop 48: 305–314.Google Scholar
  213. Townsend GC, Brown T (1978 b) Heritabilities of permanent tooth size. Am J Phys Anthrop 49: 497–502.Google Scholar
  214. Townsend GC, Yamada H, Smith P (1990) Expression of the entoconulid (sixth cusp) on mandibular molar teeth of an Australian aboriginal population. Am J Phys Anthrop 82: 267–274.Google Scholar
  215. Townsend GC, Brown T, Richards LC, Rogers JR, Pinkerton SK, Travan GR, Burgess VB (1986) Metric analyses of the teeth and faces of South Australian twins. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 35: 179–192.Google Scholar
  216. Townsend GC, Dempsey P, Brown T, Kaidonis J, Richards L (1994) Teeth, genes and the environment. Perspect Hum Biol 4: 35–46.Google Scholar
  217. Turner A, Wood B (1993) Comparative palaeontological context for the evolution of the early hominid masticatory system. J Hum Evol 24: 301–308.Google Scholar
  218. Turner CG (1986) Dental evidence for the peopling of the Americas. Nat Geo Soc Res Rep 19: 573–596.Google Scholar
  219. Turner CG (1990) Major features of Sundadonty and Sinodonty, including suggestions about East Asian microevolution, population history, and late Pleistocene relationships with Australian aboriginals. Am J Phys Anthrop 82: 295–317.Google Scholar
  220. Turner CG (1992) Microevolution of East Asian and European populations: A dental perspective. In: Akazawa T, Aoki K, Kimura T (eds) The Evolution and Dispersal of Modern Humans in Asia. Hokusen-Sha, Tokyo, p. 415–438.Google Scholar
  221. Turner CG, Nichol CR, Scott GR (1991) Scoring procedures for key morphological traits for the permanent dentition: The Arizona State University dental anthropology system. In: Kelley MA, Larsen CS (eds) Advances in Dental Anthropology. Wiley-Liss, New York, p. 13–31.Google Scholar
  222. Tiirp JC, Brace CL, Alt KW (1997) Richard Owen and the comparative anatomy of teeth. J Hist Dent 45: 11–16.Google Scholar
  223. Vach W, Alt KW (1993) Detection of kinship structures in prehistoric burial sites based on odontological traits. In: Andresen J, Madsen T, Scollar I (eds) Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Univ Press, Aarhus, p. 287–292.Google Scholar
  224. Van Reenen JF, Reid C (1995) The configuration of maxillary molars. In: Radlanksi RJ, Renz H (eds) Proc 10th Int Symp Dental Morphology. Brünne, Berlin, p. 167–171.Google Scholar
  225. Verger-Pratoucy JC (1970) Recherches sur les mutilations maxillo-dentaires préhistoriques. Bull Group Int Rech Sc Stomat 13: 133–310.Google Scholar
  226. Visser JB (1948) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der menschlichen Zahnwurzelformen. Med Diss, Zürich.Google Scholar
  227. Vogel F, Motulsky AG (1996) Human Genetics: Problems and Approaches. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  228. Waldeyer W (1864) Untersuchungen über die Entwicklung der Zähne. Königsberger Med Jb, 1 Abt 4: 236–299.Google Scholar
  229. Walker A (1981) Dietary hypotheses and human evolution. Philos Trans Roy Soc London B 292: 57–64.Google Scholar
  230. Walker PL (1996) Presidential address. Dent Anthrop Newsl 10 (3): 1.Google Scholar
  231. Walkhoff O (1894) Mikrophotographischer Atlas der normalen Histologie menschlicher Zähne. Risel, Hagen.Google Scholar
  232. Weidenreich F (1937) The dentition of Sinanthropus Pekinensis: A comparative odontography of the hominids. Paleont Sinica, NS D 1: 1–132.Google Scholar
  233. White TD, Suwa G, Asfaw B (1994) Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371: 306–312.Google Scholar
  234. White TD, Suwa G, Asfaw B (1994) Corrigendum. Nature 375: 88.Google Scholar
  235. Whittaker DK, Hargreaves AS (1991) Dental restorations and artificial teeth in a Georgian population. Br Dent J 171: 371–376.Google Scholar
  236. Witkop CJ (ed) (1962) Genetics and Dental Health. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  237. Wolpoff MH (1971) Metric Trends in Hominid Dental Evolution. Studies in Anthropology 2. Case Western Reserve University Studies Anthrop, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  238. Wortman JL (1886) The comparative anatomy of the teeth of vertebrates. Wortman JL (1902) Studies of Eocene Mammalia in the marsh collection, Peabody Museum. Am J Sci 13: 39–46.Google Scholar
  239. Würtz G (1985) Zahnentwicklung: Kenntnisstand im Ablauf der Geschichte. Ferber, Gießen.Google Scholar
  240. Zittel KA von (1899) Geschichte der Geologie und Paläontologie. Oldenbourg, München.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kurt W. Alt
  • C. Loring Brace
  • Jens C. Türp

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations