Dental Age Estimation of Non-Adults. A Review of Methods and Principles

  • Helen M. Liversidge
  • Berthold Herdeg
  • Friedrich W. Rösing


Tooth formation is widely used as a growth marker, allowing assessments and comparisons between individuals and populations in dentistry, pediatrics and anthropology. Human ecology, archeology, and forensic sciences also rely on standards of dental formation. Of all the growth systems tooth formation has the highest time stability and as such provides the most accurate way of calibrating growth and development. Dental growth standards define which stages of tooth formation occur on average when; for example the age at which teeth begin to mineralise and when they are fully mineralised. Age standards that document the sequence and timing of events during somatic and dental growth are a powerful screening device to (1) assess the maturation level of an individual, (2) assess the ecological situation of a population, (3) plan for medical interception in the case of abnormal development, (4) measure the response to treatment of abnormal growth, and (5) estimate age at death of an immature skeleton or corpse. In addition, investigations of the control systems and dynamics of tooth formation lead to a better understanding of the biology of growth in general.


Deciduous Tooth Permanent Tooth Tooth Development Permanent Dentition Dental Development 


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Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen M. Liversidge
  • Berthold Herdeg
  • Friedrich W. Rösing

There are no affiliations available

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