HIV-1 subtype O: epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and perspectives of the evolution of HIV
HIV-1 subtype O is a new HIV variant originating in the West-Central African region, with highest prevalences in countries such as Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon. Detection of antibodies to HIV-1 subtype O can pose problems in unmodified ELISA tests, and confirmation of anti-HIV-1 subtype O in immunoblot may give false negative results in some specimens. Nucleic acid-based assays designed for HIV-1 detection do not amplify or detect sequences from HIV-1 subtype O. In their env sequences, HIV-1 subtype O strains show a higher heterogeneity than the classical HIV-1 subtypes, leading to the conclusion that HIV-1 subtype O has been introduced into the human population only recently. Further, unidentified subtypes are also likely to exist.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Type False Negative Result Equine Infectious Anaemia Virus West Central Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus
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