Imported vector- and rodent-borne virus infections — an introduction

  • T. F. Schwarz
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Virology Supplement II book series (ARCHIVES SUPPL, volume 11)


Travel is a potent force in the emergence of virus infections. Migration of humans and animals has been the pathway for disseminating virus diseases throughout history. In recent years, dengue virus has been identified as the most important travel-related, vector-borne virus disease. Other vector-borne virus infections, such as sandfly fever, Rift Valley fever, Chikungunya fever and Japanese encephalitis, have been diagnosed in travelers returning from endemic areas. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever may not only be imported by infected live stock, but also by travelers. Of rodent-borne virus infections, Lassa fever has been diagnosed occasionally in travelers returning from endemic areas. The potential impact of imported filoviruses is currently discussed.


Dengue Fever Haemorrhagic Fever Rift Valley Fever Rift Valley Fever Virus Dengue Shock Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arthur RR, El-Sharkawy MS, Cope SE, Botros BA, Oun S, Morrill JC, Shope RE, Hibbs RG, Darwish MA, Imam IZE (1993) Recurrence of Rift Valley fever in Egypt. Lancet 342: 1149–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Calisher CH, Weinberg AN, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS (1987) Toscana virus infection in United States citizen returning from Italy. Lancet I: 165–166Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Centers for Disease Control (1991) Imported dengue — United States, 1990. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 40: 519–520Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Centers for Disease Control (1993) Imported dengue — United States, 1991. Dengue Surveill Summ 66: 1–4Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Centers for Disease Control (1994) Dengue fever among U.S. military personnel-Haiti, September-November, 1994. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 43: 845–848Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1995) Imported dengue — United States, 1993–1994. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 44: 353–356Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooper CB, Gransden WR, Webster M, King M, O’Mahony M, Young S, Banatvala JE (1982) A case of Lassa fever: experience at St. Thomas’s Hospital. Br Med J 285: 1003–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cunningham R, Mutton K (1991) Dengue haemorrhagic fever. Br Med J 302:1083–1084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deutman AF, Klomp HJ (1981) Rift Valley fever retinitis. Am J Ophthalmol 92: 38–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ehrnst A, Peters CJ, Niklasson B, Svedmayr A, Holmgren B (1985) Neurovirulent Toscana virus (a sandfly fever virus) in a Swedish man after visit to Portugal. Lancet I: 1212–1213Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Eitrem R, Vene S, Niklasson B (1990) Incidence of sand fly fever among Swedish United Nations soldiers on Cyprus during 1985. Am J Trop Med Hyg 43: 207–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eitrem R, Niklasson B, Weiland O (1991) Sandfly fever among Swedish tourists. Scand J Infect Dis 23: 451–457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fisher-Hoch SP, Khan JA, Rehman S, Mirza S, Khurshid M, McCormick JB (1995) Crimean Congo-haemorrhagic fever treated with oral ribavirin. Lancet 346: 472–475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gaidamovich SV, Khutoretskaya NV, Asyamov YV, Tsyupa VI, Melnikova EE (1990) Sandfly fever in central Asia and Afganistan. In: Calisher CH (ed) Hemorrhagic fever with zonal syndrome, tick- and mosquito borne viruses. Springer, Wien New York, pp 287–293 (Arch Virol [Suppl] 1)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gubler DJ, Trent DW (1993) Emergence of epidemic dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever as a public health problem in the Americas. Infect Agents Dis 2: 383–393PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harnett GB, Bucens MR (1990) Isolation of Chikungunya virus in Australia. Med J Aust 152: 328–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hasler C, Schnorf H, Enderlin N, Gyr K (1993) Importiertes Dengue-Fieber nach einem Tropenaufenthalt. Schweiz Med Wschr 123: 120–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hayes CG, O’Rourke TF, Fogelman V, Leavengood DD, Crow G, Albersmeyer MM (1989) Dengue fever in American military personnel in the Philippines: clinical observations on the hospitalized patients during a 1984 epidemic. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Pub Health 20: 1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hirabayashi Y, Oka S, Goto H, Shimada K, Kurata T, Fisher-Hoch SP, McCormick JB (1988) An imported case of Lassa fever with late appearance of polyserositis. J Infect Dis 158: 872–875PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Holmes GP, McCormick JB, Trock SC, Chase RA, Lewis SM, Mason CA, Hall PA, Brammer LS, Perez-Oronoz GI, McDonnell MK, Paulissen JP, Schonberger LB, Fisher-Hoch S (1990) Lassa fever in the United States — investigation of a case and new guidelines for management. N Engl J Med 323: 1120–1123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jacobs MG, Brook MG, Weir WRC, Bannister BA (1991) Dengue haemorrhagic fever, a risk of returning home. Br Med J 302: 828–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jahrling PB, Geisbert TW, Dalgard DW, Johnson ED, Ksiazek TG, Hall WC, Peters CJ (1990) Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA. Lancet 335: 502–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kanesa-Thasan N, Iacono-Connors L, Magill A, Smoak B, Vaughn D, Dubois D, Burrous J, Hoke C (1994) Dengue serotype 2 and 3 in US forces in Somalia. Lancet 343: 678 (1994)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kenyon RH, Niklasson B, Jahrling PB, Geisbert T, Svensson L, Frydén A, Bengtsson M, Foberg U, Peters CJ (1994) Virologic investigation of a case of suspected haemorrhagic fever. Res Virol 145: 397–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krippner R, Hanisch G, Kretschmar H (1990) Denguefieber mit hämorrhagischen Manifestationen nach Thailandaufenthalt. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 115: 858–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Le Guenno B, Formentry P, Wyers M, Gounon P, Walker F, Boesch C (1995) Isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of Ebola. Lancet 345: 1271–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mahdy MS, Chiang W, McLaughlin B, Derksen K, Truxton BH, Neg K (1989) Lassa fever: the first confirmed case imported into Canada. Can Dis Wkly Rep 15: 193–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Macdonald WBG, Tink AR, Ouvrier RA, Menser MA, de Silva LM, Nairn H, Hawkes RA (1989) Japanese encephalitis after a two-week holiday in Bali. Med J Aust 150: 334–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morens DM, Sather GE, Gubler DJ, Rammohan M, Woodall JP (1987) Dengue shock syndrome in an American traveler with primary dengue 3 infection. Am J Trop med hyg 36: 424–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Muyembe T, Kipasa M (1995) Ebola haemorrhagic fever in Kitwit, Zaire. Lancet 345: 1448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Niklasson B, Meegan JM, Bengtsson E (1979) Antibodies to Rift Valley fever virus in Swedish U.N. soldiers in Egypt and the Sinai. Scand J Infect Dis 11: 313–314PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Patey O, Ollivaud L, Breuil J, Lafaix C (1993) Unusual neurologic manifestations occurring during dengue fever infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48: 793–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schwarz TF, Gilch S, Jäger G (1993) Travel-related Toscana virus infection. Lancet 342: 803–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Schwarz TF, Jäger G, Gilch S, Pauli C (1995) Serosurvey and laboratory diagnosis of imported sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana, infection in Germany. Epidemiol Infect 114:501–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schwarz TF, Gilch S, Jäger G (1995) Aseptic meningitis caused by sandfly fever virus, serotype Toscana. Clin Infect Dis 21: 669–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Schwarz TF, Jäger G (1995) Imported dengue virus infections in German tourists. Zbl Bakteriol 282: 533–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Siegert R, Shu HL, Slenczka W, Peters D, Müller G (1967) Zur Ätiologie einer unbekannten von Affen ausgegangenen Infektionskrankheit. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 92: 2341–2343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Suleiman MNEH, Muscat-Baron JM, Harries JR, Satti AGO, Platt GS, Bowen ETW, Simpson DIH (1980) Congo/Crimean haemorrhagic fever in Dubai — an outbreak at the Rashid hospital. Lancet II: 939–941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Swanepoel R (1987) Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa: history and national strategy. S Afr J Sci 83: 80–88Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Van Tongeren HAE (1981) Imported virus diseases in the Netherlands out of tropical areas 1977–1980 (30 months). Tropenmed Parasit 32: 205Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vaughn DW, Hoke CH (1992) The epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis: prospects for prevention. Epidemiol Rev 14: 197–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vögtlin J, Gyr K (1985) Dengue-Fieber als Importkrankheit in der Schweiz. Schweiz Med Wochenschr 115: 1273–1277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wittesjö B, Eitrem R, Niklasson B (1993) Dengue fever among Swedish tourists. Scand J Infect Dis 25: 699–704PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Wittesjö B, Eitrem R, Niklasson B, Vene S, Mangiafico JA (1995) Japanese encephalitis after a 10-day holiday in Bali. Lancet 345: 856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Woodruff AW, Bowen ET, Platt GS (1978) Viral infections in travellers from tropical Africa. Br Med J I: 956–958Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    World Health Organization (1992) Viral hemorrhagic fever in imported monkeys. Wkly Epidemiol Rep 67: 142Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    World Health Organization (1995) Japanese encephalitis. Wkly Epidemiol Rep 70: 166–167Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    World Health Organization (1995) Ebola haemorrhagic fever. Wkly Epidemiol Rep 70: 241–242Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Zweighaft RM, Fraser DW, Hattwick MAW, Winkler WG, Jordan WC, Alter M, Wolfe M, Wulff H, Johnson KM (1977) Lassa fever: response to an imported case. N Engl J Med 297: 803–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. F. Schwarz
    • 1
  1. 1.Max von Pettenkofer Institute for Hygiene and Medical MicrobiologyLudwig Maximilians UniversityMunichFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations