Advertisement

Abstract

At the end of the last century, Miescher (66) made a careful study of fish protein in his series of classic investigations on protein metabolism in the Rhine salmon during milting. These experiments, their extension by Kossel (55), and the valuable contribution of Greene (39), Greene (40) and Weiss (106) constitute one of the most stimulating chapters in “dynamic” biochemistry. Except for this unique achievement, the literature related to the biochemistry of fish proteins unfortunately has very few highlights. For the most part, the work done is a recapitulation of mammalian biochemistry; some fish tissues have been analyzed for the presence or absence of compounds previously demonstrated in mammalian or avian tissues. Special investigation of the peculiarities of fish protein, studies of the physical and chemical properties which differentiate these particular substances as “fish proteins” have not yet been attempted.

Keywords

Amino Acid Composition Muscle Protein Fish Muscle Building Stone Fish Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abderhalden, E., E. Baertich U. W. Ziesecke: Über den Gehalt des aus Kabeljau gewonnenen Muskeleiweiß an Aminosäuren. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 240, 152 (1936).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ågren, G.: Amino Acid Composition of Some Species of Swedish Fish. Acta physiol. scand. 7, 134 (1944).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Annau, E.: Das Verhalten der Histone im biologischen Versuche. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 205, 154 (1932).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atwater, W. O.: The Chemical Composition of Food Fishes. Washington. 1891.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bailey, K.: Composition of the Myosins and Myogens of Sceletal Muscle. Biochemic. J. 31, 1406 (1937).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bailey, K.: The Proteins of Skeletal Muscle. Adv. in Protein Chemistry 1, 289 (1944).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baldwin, E.: Introduction to Comparative Biochemistry. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1937.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Beach, E. F., B. Munks and A. Robinson: The Amino Acid Composition of Animal Tissue Protein. J. biol. Chemistry 148, 431 (1943).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Beveridge, J. M. R.: Sulphur Distribution on Fish Flesh Proteins. J. Fisheries Res. Board Canada 7(2), 51 (1947).Google Scholar
  10. 9a.
    Beveridge, J. M. R.: The Nutritive Value of Marine Products. J. Fisheries Res. Board Canada 7(1), 35 (1947).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Beveridge, J. M. R. and C. C. Lucas: Amino Acids of Isinglass. J. biol. Chemistry 155, 547 (1944).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    Block, R. J. and D. Bolling: The Amino Acid Composition of Proteins and Foods. Springfield: Ch. C. Thomas. 1945.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Block, R. J. and D. Bolling: The Constitution of Salmine. Arch. Biochemistry 6, 419 (1945).Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    BoucHer-Firly, S.: Sur la teneur en protéines du sérum d’anguille et de congré et ses variations au cours des changements de salinite. C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 115, 952 (1932).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Carpenter, C. F.: Isinglass and Finnings. J. Incorporated Brewers Guild 23, 110 (1937).Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Chargaff, E.: Protamine Salts of Phosphatides. J. biol. Chemistry 125, 661 (1938).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Chargaff, E.: Protamines and Blood Clotting. J. biol. Chemistry 125, 671 (1938).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Chargaff, E. and K. B.Olson: Chemistry of Blood Coagulation. J. biol. Chemistry 122, 153 (1938).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Chatfield, CH. and A. Georgian: Proximate Composition of American Food Materials. Circular No. 549, U. S. Dept. of Agriculture (1940).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Clark, E. D. and R. W. Clough: Nutritive Value of Fish and Shellfish. Report of the Bureau of Fisheries No. 1000, U. S. Dept. Commerce (1926).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Deas, C. P. and H. L. A. Tarr: The Value of Fish and Fish Proteins in Foods. Progress Rep. Fisheries Res. Board Canada 69, 66 (1946).Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Demenier, G.: Sur la teneur en sérine et en globuline du sérum de quelque Poissons. C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 115, 555 (1934).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., M. C. Hrubetz, C. H. Johnston, R. J. Winzler, E. Geiger and G. Schnakenberg: Studies on the Nutritive Value of Fish Proteins. I. J. Nutrit. 31, 175 (1946).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Deuel, H. J., Jr., M. C. Hrubetz, C. H. Johnston, H. S. Rollman and E. Geiger: The Use of Mackerel Protein in the Bioassay Test for Vitamin A.J. Nutrit. 31, 187 (1946).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    Dirr, K. u. K. Felix: Über Clupein. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 205, 83 (1932).Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Drummond, J. C.: The Nutritive Value of Certain Fish. J. Physiology 52, 94 (1918).Google Scholar
  27. 25a.
    Faure-Frémiet, E. and A. Cougney: Properties of Ichthycolla. Bull. Museum natl. hist. nat. (Paris) 9, 188 (1937).Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    Felix, K. u. A. Mager: Über Clupein. VIII. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 249, 111 (1937).Google Scholar
  29. 27.
    Felix, K., L. Baumer U. E. Schörner: Über das Schicksal des Protamins in der befruchteten Eizelle. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 243, 44 (1936).Google Scholar
  30. 28.
    Firly, S. et M. Fontaine: Sur la relation existant dans le sérum d’Anguille entre le teneur en protéines et le rapport de la pression osmotique due au NaCl à la pression osmotique totale. C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 110, 471 (1932).Google Scholar
  31. 29.
    Fontaine, M. et S. Bouchet-Firly: Sur la teneur en protéine du sérum des POISSONS. Bull. Inst. Oceanography (Monaco) No. 610 (1932).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    Fraenkel-Conrat, H. and H. S. Olcott: Possible Cyclic Structure of Salmine. Federation Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 6, 253 (1947).Google Scholar
  33. 31.
    Fürth, O. Von: Über die Eiweißkörper des Muskelplasmas. Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Pathol. Pharmakol. 36, 231 (1895).Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    Galvyalo, M. Y. and T. Goryukhina: The Properties of Muscular Proteins in Fish. Chem. Abstr. 37, 1492 (1943).Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Geiger, E.: Experiments with the Delayed Supplementation of Incomplete Amino Acid Mixtures. J. Nutrit. 34, 97 (1947).Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    Geiger, E.: Histamine Content of Fish. A Tentative Method for Quantitative Determination of Spoilage. Food Research 9, 293, (1944).Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    Geiger, E.: Physiology of the Utilization of Dietary Amino Acid Mixtures. Thesis, Univ. Southern California, Los Angeles (1946).Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    Geiger, E., G. Courtney and G. Schnakenberg: The Content and Formation of Histamine in Fish Muscle. Arch. Biochemistry 3, 311 (1944).Google Scholar
  39. 37.
    Gill, R.: Variations of Amino Acid Composition of Herring. Dove Marine Lab. Report, N. S. 15–16, 33 (1926).Google Scholar
  40. 38.
    Gon, S. K.: Blood Chemistry of Fish. III. Nonprotein Nitrogen, Chloride and Total Protein Contents of the Blood of Fresh-Water Fish in Winter; IV. In Summer; V. in Spring; VI. in Autumn. Chem. Abstf. 35, 2616 (1941).Google Scholar
  41. 39.
    Greene, C. W.: Biochemical Changes in the Muscle Tissue of King Salmon During the Fast of Spawning Migration. J. biol. Chemistry 39, 435 (1919).Google Scholar
  42. 40.
    Greene, K. H.: Changes in the Nitrogenous Extractives in the Muscular Tissue of the Fast of Spawning Migration. J. biol. Chemistry 39, 457 (1919).Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    Greenstein, J. P.: Nucleoproteins. Adv. in Protein Chemistry 1, 238 (1944).Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    Guba, T.: Observations of Myosin and Actymosin. Studies Inst. Med. Chem. Univ. Szeged (Hungary) 3, 40 (1943).Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Hagedorn, H. D., B. N. Jensen, N. B. Krarup and I. Wodstrup: Protamine Insulinate. J. Amer. med. Assoc. 106, 177 (1936).Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    Hagerty, E. B. and E. Geiger (unpublished).Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Heras, De La, A. R. and R. L.Costa: Spanish Fish. Chemical Composition of the Cockle (Cardium edule L.). Chem. Abstr. 41, 5229 (1947).Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    Holmes, A. D.: Experiments on the Digestibility of Fish. U. S. Dept. agric. No. 649 (1918).Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Ibanez, O. G. et M. Fontaine: Recherches sur les protéines du sérum sanguin de quelques Poissons migrateurs. Bull Inst. Oceanographique (Monaco) No. 679 (1935).Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Japelli, A.: Sull’azione Fisiologica di un Solfato di Protamino. Bull. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper. 8, 778 (1933).Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Jaques, L. B., A. F. Charles and C. H. Best: The Administration of Heparin.Google Scholar
  52. Jaques, L. B., A. F. Charles and C. H. Best: Acta med. scand., Suppl. 90, 190 (1938).Google Scholar
  53. 50.
    Jaques, L. B. and E. T. Waters: The Identity and Origin of the Anticoagulant of Anaphylactic Shock in Dog. J. Physiology 99, 454 (1941).Google Scholar
  54. 51.
    Jorpes, E., E. Pehr and T. Thaning: Neutralization of Action of Heparin by Protamine. Lancet 237, 975 (1939).Google Scholar
  55. 52.
    Kern, A. R. and P. H. Langer: Protamine and Allergy. J. Amer. med. Assoc. 113, 199 (1939).Google Scholar
  56. 53.
    Kernot, J. C., J. Knaggs and N. E. Speer: Diamino-N of Cod Muscle. Biochemic. J. 24, 378 (1930).Google Scholar
  57. 54.
    Kik, M. C. and E. V. McCollum: The Nutritive Value of Haddock and Herring. Amer. J. Hyg. 8, 671 (1928).Google Scholar
  58. 55.
    Kossel, A.: The Protamines and Histones. London: Longmans Green and Co. 1928.Google Scholar
  59. 36.
    Lanham, W. B., Jr. and J. M. Lemon: Nutritive Value for Growth of Some Proteins of Fishery Products. Food Res. 8, 549 (1938).Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    Lepkovsky, S.: Serum and Plasma Proteins in Fish. J. biol. Chemistry 85, 667 (1930).Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    Lissitzin, M. A. u. N. S. Alexandrowskaja: Chemische Zusammensetzung der Stöhrprotamine. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 238, 54 (1936).Google Scholar
  62. 59.
    Logan, J. F.: The Soluble Proteins of the Muscle Tissue of the Haddock. Contr. Canad. Biol. and Fisheries (New Series) 6, 1 (1930).Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Lopez-Matas, A.: The Utilizàtion and Nutritive Value of Swordfish. Thesis, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (1947).Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Lopez-Matas, A. and C. R. Fellers: Swordfish in Human Nutrition. J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc. 23, 1055 (1947).Google Scholar
  65. 61a.
    Masuda, Y.: Immunological Studies of Fish-roe Protein. Jap. Z. Mikrobiol. Pathol. 27, 366 (1933).Google Scholar
  66. Masuda, Y.: Chem. Abstr. 27, 4297 (1933).Google Scholar
  67. 62.
    McCay, C. M.: The Biochemistry of Fish. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 4, 445 (1937).Google Scholar
  68. 63.
    McClean, D.: Further Observation on Testicular Extract and its Effect upon Tissue Permeability. J. Pathol. Bacteriology 34, 459 (1931).Google Scholar
  69. 64.
    Melnick, D., L. B. Oser and S. Weiss: Rate of Enzymatic Digestion of Proteins as a Factor in Nutrition. Science [New York] 103, 326 (1946).Google Scholar
  70. 65.
    Mujake, S.: Isoelektrische Punkte der Protamine. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 172, 225 (1927).Google Scholar
  71. 66.
    Miescher, F.: Statistische und biologische Beiträge zur Kenntnis vom Leben des Rheinlachses im Süßwasser. Leipzig. 1897.Google Scholar
  72. 67.
    Mylon, E., M. C. Winternitz and G. J. Sütö-Nagy: Determination of Fibrinogen with Protamine. J. biol. Chemistry 143, 21 (1942).Google Scholar
  73. 68.
    Needham, J.: Chemical Embryology. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1931.Google Scholar
  74. Needham, J.: Biochemistry and Morphogenesis. Cambridge Univ. Press. 1942.Google Scholar
  75. 69.
    Nilson, H. W., W. A. Martinek and B. Jacobs: Nutritive Value for Growth of Some Fish Proteins. U. S. Dept. of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, No. 178 (1947).Google Scholar
  76. 70.
    Nolf, P.: De la richesse du sang de quelques animaux marines en globuline et albumine. Arch. int. Physiol. 4, 98 (1906).Google Scholar
  77. 71.
    Norris, E. R. and W. D. Elam: Preparation and Properties of Crystalline Salmon Pepsin. J. biol. Chemistry 134, 443 (1940).Google Scholar
  78. 72.
    Norris, E. R. and J. C. Mathies: The Gastric Properties of Yellowfin Tuna. Federation Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 6, 281 (1947).Google Scholar
  79. 73.
    Pottinger, S. R. and W. H. Baldwin: The Content of Certain Amino Acids in the Edible Portions of Fishery Products. Proc. Sixth Pacific Science Congress 3, 453 (1939).Google Scholar
  80. 73a.
    Procter, F. G.: “Isinglass”. J. Inst. Brewing 50, 117 (1944).Google Scholar
  81. 74.
    Pugsley, H. E. and R. F. Farquharson: The Clinical Use of Isinglass. Canad. med. Assoc. J. 49, 262 (1943).Google Scholar
  82. 75.
    Rasmussen, K. E.: Clupeinuntersuchungen. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 224, 97 (1933).Google Scholar
  83. 76.
    Rasmussen, K. E. u. K. Linderström-Lang: Clupeinuntersuchungen II. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 227, 181 (1934).Google Scholar
  84. 77.
    Reay and Kuckel: cf. Bailey (5, 6).Google Scholar
  85. 78.
    Reiner, L., E. J. De Beer and M. Green: Toxic Effects of Some Basic Proteins. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 50, 71 (1942).Google Scholar
  86. 79.
    Roblee, A. R., C. A. Nichol, W. W. Cravens, C. A. Elvehjem and J. G. Nalpin: Some Properties of an Unidentified Chick Growth Factor Found in Condensed Fish Solubles. J. biol. Chemistry 173, 117 (1947).Google Scholar
  87. 80.
    Roche, J., Y. Derrien et M. S. Chouaiech: La précipitation des protéines sériques par le sulfate d’ammonium. La sérum des vertèbres marins. C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 130, 1301 (1939).Google Scholar
  88. Roche, J., Y. Derrien et M. S. Chouaiech: Ann. Inst. océanograph. 79, 20 (1940).Google Scholar
  89. 81.
    Rosedale, J. L.: The Diamino Acid Content of Fish. Biochemic. J. 23, 160 (1929).Google Scholar
  90. 82.
    Roth, E.: Die Muskeleiweißkörper des Fisches. Biochem. Z. 318, 74 (1947).Google Scholar
  91. 83.
    Rudolph, W.: Eiweiß aus dem Meer. Med. Mschr. 1, 313 (1947).Google Scholar
  92. 84.
    Saha, K. C.: Biological Value of Proteins of Bengal Fish. J. Indian. chem. Soc. 17, 223 (1940).Google Scholar
  93. Saha, K. C.: Chem. Abstr. 34, 5902 (1940).Google Scholar
  94. 85.
    Samuely, F.: Proteine der Tierwelt. Abderhaldens Biochem. Handlexikon, Bd. IV, S. 51. 1911.Google Scholar
  95. 86.
    Schmidt-Nielsen, S. and J. Stene: Biochemical Researches on Fish Muscle. Kong. norske Vidensk. Selsk., Forh. 20, 4 (1931).Google Scholar
  96. Schmidt-Nielsen, S. and J. Stene: Chem. Abstr. 26, 2248 (1932).Google Scholar
  97. 87.
    Sharpenak, A. E., O. N. Balashova and I. P. Gureva: The Amino Acids of Fish Proteins. Chem. Abstr. 32, 5092 (1938).Google Scholar
  98. 88.
    Shelley, W. B., M. P. Hodgkins and M. B. Vischer: Studies on the Toxicity of Protamine. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 50, 300 (1942).Google Scholar
  99. 89.
    Sigurdsson, G. J.: Chemical Tests of the Quality of Fish. Ind. Engng. Chem., analyt. edit. 19, 893 (1947).Google Scholar
  100. 90.
    Smith, P. J.: Glue and Gelatine. Brooklyn, Chem. Publ. Co. (1943).Google Scholar
  101. 91.
    Stedman, E. and E. Stedman: Chromosomine, a Protein Constituent of Chromosomes. Nature [London] 152, 267 (1943).Google Scholar
  102. 92.
    Suzuki, M., T. Jokuda, T. Okimoto and T. Nagasawa: Nutritive Value of Muscle Proteins of Marine Animals. J. Tokyo chem. Soc. 40, 385 (1919).Google Scholar
  103. Suzuki, M., T. Jokuda, T. Okimoto and T. Nagasawa: Chem. Abstr. 14, 76 (1920).Google Scholar
  104. 93.
    Szent-Györgyi, A.: Chemistry of Muscular Contraction. New York: Acad. Press. 1947.Google Scholar
  105. 94.
    Taylor, N. B. and M. S. Moorhouse: The Use of Isinglass as a Blood Substitute in Haemorrhage and Shock. Canad. med. Assoc. J. 49, 251 (1943).Google Scholar
  106. 95.
    Taylor, N. B. and E. T. Waters: Isinglass as a Transfusion Fluid in Haemorrhage. Canad. med. Assoc. J. 44, 547 (1941).Google Scholar
  107. 96.
    Thompson, W. H.: Die physiologische Wirkung der Protamine und ihrer Spaltungsprodukte. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 29, 1 (1900).Google Scholar
  108. 97.
    Titus, H. W. and H. M. Harshaw: A Method of Analyzing the Data of Nutrition Experiments. Poultry Sci. 14, 3 (1935).Google Scholar
  109. 98.
    Tristram, G. R.: Constitution of Salmine. Nature [London] 160, 637 (1947).Google Scholar
  110. 99.
    Vartiainen, I. and A. Marble: The Effect of Subcutaneous Administration of Protamine (Salmine) to Rabbits and Mice. J. Lab. clin. Med. 26, 1416 (1940/41).Google Scholar
  111. 100.
    Waldschmidt-Leitz, E., P. Stadler U. F. Steigerwaldt: Über Blutgerinnung. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 183, 39 (1929).Google Scholar
  112. 101.
    Waldschmidt-Leitz, E., F. Ziegler, A. Schaffner U. L. Weill: Über die Struktur der Protamine. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 197, 219 (1931).Google Scholar
  113. 102.
    Waldschmidt-Leitz, E. u. E. Kofranyi: Über die Struktur der Protamine. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 236, 181 (1935).Google Scholar
  114. 103.
    Waldschmidt-Leitz, E. u. T. Kollmann: Über die enzymatische Spaltung der Protamine. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 166, 262 (1927).Google Scholar
  115. 104.
    Walther, G. u. R. Ammon: Anaphylaktischer Schock nach Protamin. Klin. Wschr. 18, 288 (1933).Google Scholar
  116. 105.
    Waters, E. T.: Isinglass and Gelatine as Blood Substitutes. Canad. med. Assoc J. 44, 395 (1941).Google Scholar
  117. 105a.
    Waters, E. T. and L. B. Jaques: The Identity and Origin of the Anticoagulant of Anaphylactic Shock in Dog. J. Physiology 99, 454 (1941).Google Scholar
  118. 106.
    Weiss, F.: Untersuchungen über die Bildung des Lachsprotamins. Hoppe-Seyler’s Z. physiol. Chem. 52, 107 (1907).Google Scholar
  119. 107.
    Wilder, R. U. and TH. A. Keys: Foods for Emergencies. J. Amer. med. Assoc. 136, 322 (1948).Google Scholar
  120. 108.
    Young, E. G. and W. R. Inman: Protein of Casing of Salmon Eggs. J. biol. Chemistry 124, 189 (1938).Google Scholar
  121. 109.
    Zunz, E.: De la teneur fibrinogéne du plasma chez les Poissons. Arch. int. Physiol. 37, 274 (1933).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag in Vienna 1948

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Geiger
    • 1
  1. 1.Los AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations