Advertisement

Abstract

Dextran is a collective name for a series of polyglucoses having usually a high dextrorotation of the order [α]D + 180°. The dextran may be branched or straight chain and possess a high proportion of α-D-ghico-pyranose units linked through the 1: 6 positions. They are quite remarkable colloids which can be made on a large scale and at low cost from sugar, by fermentation with Leuconostoc organisms. They have acquired a new importance since they can be converted into a suitable substitute for blood plasma. Brief accounts have been written on bacterial dextrans by Hassid and Doudoroff (22) as well as by Evans, Hawkins and Hibbert (I4).

Keywords

Sulfuric Ester Colloid Osmotic Pressure Leuconostoc Mesenteroides Allyl Chloride Plasma Substitute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Anderson, G. G., W. N. Haworth, H. Raistrick and M. Stacey: Polysaccharides Synthesised by Micro-organisms. IV. The Molecular Constitution of Luteose. Biochemic. J. 33, 272 (1939).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Avineria-Shapiro, S. and S. Hestrin: The Mechanism of Polysaccharide Production from Sucrose. 2. Biochemic. J. 39, 167 (1945).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bayliss: Gum Saline for Injection. British Med. Res. Council Rep. No. 25 (1919).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Béchamp, A.: Sur 1a viscose ou substance gommeuse de la fermentation visqueuse: équation de cette fermentation. C. R. hebd. Séances Acad. Sci. 93. 78 (1881).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brauns, F. E.: The Structure of Dextran. Canad. J. Res. 16, 73 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bull, J. P., C. R. Ricketts, J. R. Squire, W. D’A. Maycock, S. J. L. Spooner, P. L. Mollison and J. C. S. Paterson: Dextran as a Plasma Substitute. Lancet 134 (1949).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Carlson, W. W. and V. Whiteside-Carlson: Biotin-carbohydrate Interrelationships in the Metabolism of Leuconostoc. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 71, 416 (1949).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carruthers, A. and E. A. Cooper: Enzyme Formation and Polysaccharide Synthesis by Bacteria. II. Biochemic. J. 30, 1001 (1936).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cienkowski: In: F. Lafar, Handbuch der technischen Mykologie, Bd. 1 und 2. 2. Aufl. Jena: G. Fischer. 1904–1914.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Daker, W. D. and M. Stacey: Investigation of a Polysaccharide Produced from Sucrose by Beta-Bacterium vermiformé (Ward-Mayer). Biochemie. J. 32, 1946 (1938).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Polysaccharides. XXX. The Polysaccharide Produced from Sucrose by Beta-Bacterium vermiformé (Ward-Mayer). J. chem. Soc. (London) 132, 585 (1939).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Daumichen, P.: Über Dextran. Chem. Zbl. 61, 1000 (1890).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Elkes, J.: Fats in Human Nutrition. Nature (London) 164, 1037 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evans, T. H., W. L. Hawkins and H. Hibbert: Reactions Relating to Carbohydrates and Polysaccharides. LXIV. Antigenicity of Dextran Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides. J. exp. Medicine 74, 511 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fairhead, E. C., M. J. Hunter and H. Hibbert: The Structure of Dextran Synthesised by Leuconostoc dextranicus. Canad. J. Res. 16, 151 (1938).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fitzgerald, J. G.: On the Nature of Antigens. Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, Sect. V 27, 1 (1933).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fowler, F.L., I. K. Buckland, F. E. Brauns and H. Hibbert: Studies on Reactions Relating to Carbohydrates and Polysaccharides. LIII. Structure of the Dextran Synthesised by the Action of Leuconostoc mesenteroides on Sucrose. Canad. J. Res. 15, 486 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gaines, S. and G. L. Stahly: The Use of L. mesenteroides as an Assay Agent for Several Members of the Vitamin B Group. J. Bacteriol. 45, 35 (1943).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Growth Requirements of L. mesenteroides and its Use as an Assay Agent. J. Bacteriol. 46, 441 (1943).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gronwall, A., B. Ingelman and H. Mosimann: Sulphuric Ester with Heparin Activity. Upsala Läkarefören. Förh. 50, 397 (1945).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grubb, R.: Dextran as a Medium for the Demonstration of Incomplete Anti-Rh-agglutinins. J. Clin. Pathology 2, 223 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hassid, W. Z. and M. Doudoroff: Enzymatically Synthesised Polysaccharides and Disaccharides. Fortschr. Chem. organ. Naturstoffe 5, 101 (1948).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hehre, E. J.: Studies on the Enzymic Synthesis of Dextran from Sucrose. J. biol. Chemistry 163, 221 (1946).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hehre, E. J. and D. M. Hamilton: Bacterial Conversion of Dextrin into a Polysaccharide with the Serological Properties of Dextran. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 71, 336 (1949).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hehre, E. J., J. M. Neill, J. Y. Sugg and E. Jaffe: Serological Studies on Sugar, i. Reactions Between Solutions of Reagent Sucrose and Type II Anti-pneumococcus Serum. J. exp. Medicine 70, 427 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hehre, E. J. and J. Y. Sugg: Serological Reactivity of Dextran Plasma Substitute. Federat. Proc. (Amer. Soc. exp. Biol.) 9, 383 (1950).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hucker, G. J. and C. S. Pederson: Studies on Coccae XVI Leuconostoc. New York State agric. Exp. Stat., techn. Bull. 167, 3 (1930).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Husemann, E. u. H. Ruska: Versuche zur Sichtbarmachung von Glykogenmolekülen. J. prakt. Chem. 156, 1 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ingelman, B.: Enzymatic Breakdown of Dextran. Acta chem. scand. 2, 803 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ingelman, B.: Investigations on Dextran. Upsala Läkarefören. Förh. 54, 107 (1949).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ingelman, B. and M. S. Halling: Some Physico-chemical Experiments on Fractions of Dextran. Ark. Kemi 1, 61 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ingelman, B. and K. Siegbahn: An Electron-Microscopic Study of Dextran Molecules. Ark. Kern., Mineral. Geol. 18 B, No. 1 (1944).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ingelman, B. and K. Siegbahn: Dextran and Levan Molecules Studied with the Electron Microscope. Nature (London) 154, 237 (1944).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Jeanes, A., N. G. Schieltz and C. A. Wilham: Molecular Association in Dextran and in Branched Amylaceous Carbohydrates. J. biol. Chemistry 176, 617 (1948).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jeanes, A., C. A. Wilham and J. C. Miers: Preparation and Characterization of Dextran from Leuconostoc mesenteroides. J. biol. Chemistry 176, 603 (1948).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Joubert: In: F. Lafar, Handbuch der technischen Mykologie, Bd. 1 und 2. 2. Aufl. Jena: G. Fischer. 1904–1914.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Levi, I., W. L. Hawkins and H. Hibbert: Studies on Reactions Relating to Carbohydrates and Polysaccharides. LXVI. Structure of the Dextran Synthesized by the Action of Leuconostoc mesenteroides on Sucrose. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 64, 1959 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liesenberg, C. u. W. Zopf: Über den sogenannten Froschlaichpilz (Leuco-nostoc) des europäischen Rübenzuckers. Centr. prakt. Parasit. 12, 659 (1892).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lockwood, A. R., F. G. Pautard and A. James: Studies on the Breakdown Product of Dextran Formed by Ultrasonic Vibration. Research 4, 46 (1951).Google Scholar
  40. 39a.
    Lockwood, A. R. and G. Swift: Improvements in the Manufacture of Dextran. Brit. Pat. 583378.Google Scholar
  41. 40.
    Lorenz, L., W. D’A. Maycock and C. R. Ricketts: Molecular Composition of Dextran Solutions for Intravenous Use. Nature (London) 165, 770 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 41.
    Neill, J. M., J. Y. Sugg, E. J. Hehre and E. Jaffe: Serological Studies on Sugar. II. Reactions of the Antiserums Type 2 Pneumococcus and of Leuconostoc mesenteroides with Cane and Beet Sugars and with Cane Juice. Amer. J. Hyg. 34 B, 65 (1941).Google Scholar
  43. 42.
    Nordström, L. and E. Hultin: Dextranase, a New Enzyme from Mold. Svensk kern. Tidskr. 60, 283 (1948).Google Scholar
  44. 43.
    Pasteur, L.: Sur la fermentation visqueuse et 1a fermentation butyrique. Bull. Soc. chim. France 1861, 30.Google Scholar
  45. 44.
    Peat, S., E. Schlüchterer and M. Stacey: Polysaccharides. XXIX. Constitution of the Dextran Produced from Sucrose by Leuconostoc dextranicum (Betacoccus arabinosaceous haemolyticus). J. chem. Soc. (London) 1939, 581.Google Scholar
  46. 45.
    Pickup, D.M.: Extraction of Lymphocytes from Rabbits’ Blood. Nature (London) 164, 959 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 46.
    Raistrick, H. and W. Rintoul: Studies on the Biochemistry of Microorganisms. Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B 220, 1 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 47.
    Ricketts, C. R. and K. Walton: (in preparation for press).Google Scholar
  49. 47a.
    Schiebler, In: F. Lafar, Handbuch der technischen Mykologie. Bd. 1 und 2. 2. Aufl. Jena: G. Fischer. 1904–1914.Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Stacey, M.: Enzymatic Production of Bacterial Polysaccharides. Nature (London) 149, 639 (1942).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 49.
    Stacey, M.: Unpublished.Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Stacey, M.: Aspects of Immunochemistry. Quart. Rev. chem. Soc. 1, 179 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Stacey, M.: Degradation of Dextran by Ultrasonic Waves. Research 4, 48 (I951).Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Stacey, M. and G. Swift: Structure of the Dextran Synthesised from Sucrose by a New Strain of Betacoccus arabinosaceous. J. chem. Soc. (London) 1948, 1555.Google Scholar
  55. 53.
    Stacey, M. and F. R. Youd: A Note on the Dextran Produced from Sucrose by Betacoccus arabinosaceous haemolyticus. Biochemic. J. 32, 1943 (1938).Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Stahly, G. L. and W. W. Carlson: U. S. Pat. 2344179 (1944).Google Scholar
  57. 55.
    Stahly, G. L. and W. W. Carlson: U. S. Pat. 2203702; 2203703; 2203704 and 2203705 (1940).Google Scholar
  58. 56.
    Stahly, G. L. and W. W. Carlson: U. S. Pat. 2229941 (1941).Google Scholar
  59. 56a.
    Sugar Research Foundation Publications, New York.Google Scholar
  60. 57.
    Swift, G.: Thesis, Univ. Birmingham. 1943. Private communication.Google Scholar
  61. 58.
    Tarr, H. L. A. and H. Hibbert: Studies on Reactions Relating to Carbohydrates and Polysaccharides. XXXVII. The Formation of Dextran by Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Canad. J. Res. 5, 414 (1931).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 59.
    Treghen, von: In: F. Lafar, Handbuch der technischen Mykologie, Bd. 1 und 2. 2. Aufl. Jena: G. Fischer. 1904–1914.Google Scholar
  63. 60.
    Williams, R. C. and R. W. G. Wyckoff: Electron Shadow-micrography of Virus Particles. Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. Med. 58, 265 (1945).Google Scholar
  64. 61.
    Wolfrom, M. L., L. W. Georges and I. L. Miller: Crystalline Derivatives-of Isomaltose. J. Amer. chem. Soc. 71, 125 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 62.
    Zozaya, J.: Carbohydrates Adsorbed on Colloids. J. exp. Medicine 55, 325 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 63.
    Zozaya, J.: Immunological Reactions Between Dextran Polysaccharides and Some Bacterial Antisera. J. exp. Medicine 55, 353 (1932).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Wien · Springer-Verlag 1951

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Stacey
    • 1
  • C. R. Ricketts
    • 1
  1. 1.BirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations