The Anatomy of Secondary Xylem and the Classification of Ancient Dicotyledons

  • Helmut P. J. Gottwald
Part of the Plant Systematics and Evolution / Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Pflanzen book series (SYSTEMATICS, volume 1)


The stem wood of about 700 species belonging to 32 families of the order Magnoliales s.l., plus further taxa exhibiting primitive wood anatomical features, was investigated. On this basis, six structural groups can be established each of which show a marked gradation from primitive to advanced stages. Wood structure of Magnoliales sensu Takhtajan is only partially primitive, partially moderately derived, while the most primitively structured heteroxylous taxa belong to the “Dillenial-Hamamelidal” and “Theal” group, respectively. Accordingly, there is no compelling evidence to support phylogenetic schemes in which the Magnoliales is placed as the only common base for all recent dicotyledons. For this reason, and since there is no structural mechanism which justifies the derivation of the taxa, belonging to the “Dillenial-Hamamelidal” and “Theal” groups which are very primitive in their wood anatomy, from the types embracing Magnoliales sensu Takhtajan, a new phylogenetic model assuming an early separation of angiosperms into at least two branches is discussed. Furthermore, possible affinities between primitive and advanced taxa within the different structural groups are shown.


Structural Group Secondary Xylem Wood Structure Wood Anatomy Stem Wood 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Baranova, M., 1972: Systematic anatomy of the leaf epidermis in the Magnoliaceae and some related families. Taxon 21, 447–469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Endress, P., 1968: Gesichtspunkte zur systematischen Stellung der Eupteleaceen. Ber. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 79, 229–278.Google Scholar
  3. Engler, A., 1964: Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien (Melchior, H., Hrsg.), 12. Aufl. Berlin: Borntraeger.Google Scholar
  4. Garratt, G. A., 1933: Bearing of wood anatomy on the relationships of the Myristicaceae. Tropical Woods 36, 20–44.Google Scholar
  5. Garratt, G. A., 1933: Systematic anatomy of the woods of the Monimiacaee Tropical Woods 39, 18–44.Google Scholar
  6. Gottwald, H., 1972: Tyloses in fibre tracheids. Wood Sci. Technol. 6, 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keng, H., 1962: Comparative morphological studies in Theaceae. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 33, 269–384.Google Scholar
  8. Lemesle, R., 1953: Les caractères histologiques du bois secondaire des Magnoliales Phytomorphology 3, 430–445.Google Scholar
  9. McLaughlin, R. P., 1933: Systematic anatomy of the woods of the Magnoliales Tropical Woods 34, 3–39.Google Scholar
  10. Money, L., Bailey, I. W., and Swamy, B. C. L., 1950: The morphology and relationships of the Monimiaceae. J. Arnold Arb. 31, 372–404.Google Scholar
  11. Praglowski, J., and Dandy, E., 1974: Magnoliaceae. World Pollen and Spore Flora 3, 1–45.Google Scholar
  12. Takhtajan, A., 1973: Evolution und Ausbreitung der Blütenpflanzen. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helmut P. J. Gottwald
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Holzbiologie und HolzschutzBundesforschungsanstalt für Forstund HolzwirtschaftHamburg 80Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations