Some Aspects of the Classification and Evolution of Higher Taxa

  • K. Kubitzki
Part of the Plant Systematics and Evolution / Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Pflanzen book series (SYSTEMATICS, volume 1)


It is shown that a fully phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants, though not impossible in principle, is hard to attain at present because of the absence of any precise cladistic information about this plant group. The unwarranted confusion of grades and clades imposes a strongly typological element upon current systems intended to be phylogenetic. A plea is made for a striving after an understanding of the functional significance of characters which is indispensable for aiming at a true understanding of evolutionary processes and pathways.


Flowering Plant High Taxon Phylogenetic Classification Primitive Character Double Fertilization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bendz, G., and Santesson, J. (Eds.), 1973: Chemistry in Botanical Classification. Nobel Symposium 25. New York-London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Braz Filho, R., Frota Leite, M. F., and Gottlieb, O. R., 1973: Constitutions of diarylpropanoids from Virola multinervia. Phytochemistry 12, 417–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlquist, S., 1969: Toward acceptable evolutionary interpretation of floral anatomy. Phytomorphology 19, 332–362.Google Scholar
  4. Carlquist, S., 1975: Ecological Strategies of Xylem Evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  5. Corner, E. J. H., 1976: The Seeds of Dicotyledons. Vol. I, II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cronquist, A., 1968: The Evolution and Classification of Flowering Plants. London: Nelson.Google Scholar
  7. Cronquist, A., 1976: The taxonomic significance of the structure of plant proteins: A classical taxonomist’s view. Brittonia 28, 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crowson, R. A., 1970: Classification and Biology. London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  9. Dahlgren, R., 1975: A system of classification of the angiosperms to be used to demonstrate the distribution of characters. Bot. Notiser 128, 119–197.Google Scholar
  10. Dahlgren, R., 1975a: The distribution of characters within an angiosperm system. I. Some embryological characters. Bot. Notiser 128, 181–197.Google Scholar
  11. Davis, P. H., and Heywood, V. H., 1963: Principles of Angiosperm Taxonomy. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd.Google Scholar
  12. Emberger, L., 1960: Les Végéteaux Vasculaires. In: Traité de Botanique (Systématique), Tome II, Fascicule I, II. (Chadefaud, M. et Emberger, L.), Paris: Masson et Cie.Google Scholar
  13. Greguss, P., 1964: The phylogeny of sexuality and triphyletic evolution of the land plants. Acta Biol. Szeged. 10, 3–51.Google Scholar
  14. Heywood, V. H., 1973: Ecological data in practical taxonomy. In: Taxonomy and Ecology (Heywood, V. H., Ed.), 329–347. London-New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  15. Heywood, V. H., 1973a: Taxonomy in crisis? Or taxonomy is the digestive system in biology. Acta Bot. Acad. Sc. Hung. 19, 139–146.Google Scholar
  16. Heywood, V. H., 1973b: The role of chemistry in plant systematics. In: Chemistry in Evolution and Systematics (Swain, T., Ed.), 355–375. London: Butter-worths.Google Scholar
  17. Hickey, L. H., and Wolfe, J. A., 1976: The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: Vegetative morphology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62, 538–589 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hughes, N. F., 1976: Paleobiology of Angiosperm Origins. Cambridge, London, etc.: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Jensen, S. R., Nielsen, B. J., and Dahlgren, R., 1975: Iridoid compounds, their occurrence, and systematic importance in angiosperms. Bot. Notiser 128, 148–180.Google Scholar
  20. Johnson, L. A. S., 1972: Evolution and classification in Eucalyptus. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales 97, 11–29.Google Scholar
  21. Kubitzki, K., 1969: Chemosystematische Betrachtungen zur Großgliederung der Dicotylen. Taxon 18, 360–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kubitzki, K., 1973: Probleme der Großgliederung der Blütenpflanzen. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 85, 259–277 (1972).Google Scholar
  23. Kubitzki, K., 1975: Relationships between distribution and evolution in some hetero-bathmic tropical groups. Bot. Jahrb. 96, 212–230.Google Scholar
  24. Markgraf, F., 1955: Über neuere Pflanzensysteme. Ber. dtsch. bot. Ges. 67, 20–22 (1954).Google Scholar
  25. Meeuse, A. D. J., 1964: Some phylogenetic aspects of the process of double fertilization. Phytomorphology 13, 237–244.Google Scholar
  26. Meeuse, A. D. J., 1970: The descent of the flowering plants in the light of new evidence from phytochemistry and from other sources. Acta Bot. Neerl. 19, 61–72, 133–140.Google Scholar
  27. Philipson, W. R., 1961: Relationship and convergence in angiosperms. Phytomorphology 10, 367–376.Google Scholar
  28. Philipson, W. R., 1975: Evolutionary lines within the dicotyledons. New Zealand J. Bot. 13, 73–91.Google Scholar
  29. Raven, P. H., 1976: The bases of angiosperm phytogeny: Cytology. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62, 724–764 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rezende, C. M. A. da M., and Gottlieb, O. R., 1973: Xanthones as systematic markers. Biochem. Syst. 1, 111–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rezende, C. M. A. da M., and Marx, M. C., 1975: Benzyltetrahydroisochinoline-derived alkaloids as systematic markers. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 3, 63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Stebbins, G. L., 1951: Natural selection and the differentiation of angio-sperm families. Evolution 5, 299–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stebbins, G. L., 1974: Flowering Plants. Evolution Above the Species Level. London: E. Arnold.Google Scholar
  34. Takhtajan, A., 1959: Die Evolution der Angiospermen. Jena: Fischer.Google Scholar
  35. Takhtajan, A., 1964: The taxa of the higher plants above the rank of order. Taxon 13, 160–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Takhtajan, A., 1969: Flowering Plants. Origin and Dispersal. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.Google Scholar
  37. Takhtajan, A., 1973: Evolution und Ausbreitung der Blütenpflanzen. Stuttgart: Fischer.Google Scholar
  38. Thorne, R. F., 1968: Synopsis of a putatively phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants. Aliso 6, 57–66.Google Scholar
  39. Thorne, R. F., 1973: The “Amentiferae” or Hamamelidae as an artificial group: A summary statement. Brittonia 25, 395–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Walker, J. W., 1976: Evolutionary significance of the exine in the pollen of primitive angiosperms. In: The Evolutionary Significance of the Exine (Ferguson, I. K., and Muller, J., Eds.), 251–308. Linn. Soc. Symp. Ser. No. 1.Google Scholar
  41. Walker, J. W., and Skvarla, J. J., 1975: Primitively columellaless pollen: a new concept in the evolutionary morphology of angiosperms. Science 187, 445–447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Young, D. J., and Watson, L., 1970: The classification of the dicotyledons: A study of the upper levels of the hierarchy. Aust. J. Bot. 18, 387–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Kubitzki
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Allgemeine Botanik und Botanischer GartenUniversität HamburgHamburg 36Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations