Advertisement

Transmission Electron Microscopy and Systematics of Flowering Plants

  • H.-D. Behnke
Part of the Plant Systematics and Evolution / Entwicklungsgeschichte und Systematik der Pflanzen book series (SYSTEMATICS, volume 1)

Abstract

From the large number of TEM investigations of plant cells only two characters have so far proved useful for the classification of higher taxa of flowering plants.
  1. 1.

    Dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum in root cap cells and bundle parenchyma cells are a characteristic feature of members of Capparales and will be discussed with respect to their systematic reliability.

     
  2. 2.

    The micromorphological differences identified within sieve-element plastids represent the only character presently available which is generally applicable to the higher taxa of seed plants: The major distinction between Types of sieve-element plastids is based on the presence (P-Type) or absence (S-Type) of protein accumulations, while their micromorphology and combinations define subTypes of sieve-element plastids. Specific subTypes characterize the Monocotyledoneae (P II) and the Centrospermae (P III). Magnoliales/Laurales (P I) and Fabales (P IV) contain distinct subTypes in some of their families and genera, while others have only S-Type. Aristolochiales, Vitineae, Eucryphiaceae, Gunneraceae contain subtype P I-plastids.

     

Classification and delimitation of higher taxa in flowering plants can be aided by utilizing the different Types of sieve-element plastids, as has been best demonstrated in the Centrospermae but is also applicable to monocotyledons and a number of other taxa. An analysis of investigated species and projection into the total number of extant angiosperms results in a distribution of 35% P-Type and 65% S-Type.

In discussing phylogenetic relationships the plastid data are superimposed on Cronquist’s, Dahlgren’s, Ehrendorfer’s and Takhtajan’s angiosperm systems. Finally, arguments for the P-Type being the ancestral sieve-element plastid are presented and it is suggested that on multiple occasions the S-Type (by loss of protein) has been derived.

Keywords

Flowering Plant High Taxon Transmission Electron Microscopy Investigation Protein Tubule Transmission Electron Microscopy Method 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Behnke, H.-D., 1965: Über das Phloem der Dioscoreaceen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer Phloembecken. II. Mitteilung: Elektronen-optische Untersuchungen zur Feinstruktur des Phloembeckens. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 53, 214–244.Google Scholar
  2. Behnke, H.-D., 1967: Über den Aufbau der Siebelement-Piastiden einiger Dioscoreaceen. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. 57, 243–254.Google Scholar
  3. Behnke, H.-D., 1969 a: Die Siebröhren-Piastiden der Monocotyledonen. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über Feinbau und Verbreitung eines charakteristischen Piastidentyps. Planta (Berl.) 84, 174–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Behnke, H.-D., 1969 b: Ultrastructure of angiosperm sieve-tube plastids in relation to systematics. Abstr. XIth Intern. Bot. Congress (Seattle), p. 12.Google Scholar
  5. Behnke, H.-D., 1971: Sieve-tube plastids of Magnoliidae and Ranunculidae in relation to systematics. Taxon 20, 723–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Behnke, H.-D., 1972: Sieve-element plastids in relation to angiosperm systematics.—An attempt towards a classification by ultrastructural analysis. Bot. Rev. 38, 155–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behnke, H.-D., 1973: Sieve-tube plastids of Hamamelididae. Electron microscopic investigations with special reference to Urticales. Taxon 22, 205–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Behnke, H.-D., 1974: Sieve-element plastids of Gymnospermae: Their ultrastructure in relation to systematics. Plant Syst. Εvol. 123, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Behnke, H.-D., 1975a: P-Type sieve-element plastids: A correlative ultrastructural and ultrahistochemical study on the diversity and uniformity of a new reliable character in seed plant systematics. Protoplasma 83, 91–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Behnke, H.-D., 1975b: The bases- of angiosperm phylogeny: ultrastructure. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 62, 647–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Behnke, H.-D., 1976: Ultrastructure of sieve-element plastids in Caryophyllales (Centra-spermae), evidence for the delimitation and classification of the order. Plant Syst. Evol. 126, 31–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Behnke, H.-D., and Dahlgren, R., 1976: The distribution of characters within an angiosperm system. II. Types of sieve-element plastids. Bot. Notiser 129, 287–295.Google Scholar
  13. Bonnett, H. T., and Newcomb, E. H., 1965: Polyribosomes and cisternal accumulations in root cells of radish. J. Cell Biol. 27, 423–432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cole, G. T., and Behnke, H.-D., 1975: Electron microscopy and plant systematics. Taxon 24, 3–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cresti, M., Pacini, E., and Simoncioli, C., 1974: Uncommon paracrys-talline structure formed in the endoplasmic reticulum of the integumentary cells of Diplotaxis erucoides ovules. J. Ultrastruct. Res. 49, 218–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dahlgren, R., 1975: A system of classification of the angiosperme to be used to demonstrate the distribution of characters. Bot. Notiser 128, 119–147.Google Scholar
  17. Ehrendorfer, F., 1971: Spermatophyta. In: Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen, 30th ed., 584–745. Stuttgart: Fischer.Google Scholar
  18. Favali, M.A., and Gerola, F. M., 1968: Tubular and fibrillar components in the phloem of Brassica chinensis L. leaves. Giorn. Bot. Ital. 102, 447–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Friedrich, H. C., 1956: Studien über die natürliche Verwandtschaft der Plumbaginales und Centrospermae. Phyton (Austria) 6, 220–263.Google Scholar
  20. Havelange, A., and Courtoy, R., 1974: Description et essais de caractéri-sation cytochimique d’un composant inconnu dans les cellules méristé-matique de Sinapis alba L. (Crucifères). C. R. AcecL Se. Paris 278, 1191–1193.Google Scholar
  21. Hoefert, L. L., 1975: Tubules in dilated cisternae of endoplasmic reticulum of Thlaspi arvense (Cruciferae). Amer. J. Bot. 62, 756–760.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Iversen, T.-H., 1970a: Cytochemical localization of Myrosinase (ß-thio-glucosidase) in root tips of Sinapis alba. Protoplasma 71, 451–466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Iversen, T.-H., 1970 b: The morphology, occurrence, and distribution of dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in tissues of plants of the Cruciferae. Protoplasma 71, 467–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Iversen, T.-H., and Flood, P., 1969: Rod-shaped accumulations in cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in root cells of Lepidium sativum seedlings. Planta 86, 295–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnston, M. C., 1974: Rhamnales. Encyclopaedia Britannica. Macropaedia Vol. 15, 793–796.Google Scholar
  26. Jørgensen, L. B., Behnke, H.-D., and Mabry, T. J., in prep.: Protein-accumulating cells and dilated cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum in three glucosinolate-containing genera: Armoracia, Capparis, Drypetes. Planta.Google Scholar
  27. Kluge, H., 1967: Untersuchungen über Kohlenhydrate und myo-Inosit in Siebröhrensäften von Holzgewächsen. Dissertation Darmstadt.Google Scholar
  28. Mabry, T. J., and Behnke, H.-D. (eds.), 1976: Evolution of Centrospermous Families. Plant Syst. Evol. 126 (1).Google Scholar
  29. Takhtajan, A., 1973: Evolution und Ausbreitung der Blütenpflanzen. Stuttgart: Fischer.Google Scholar
  30. Thorne, R., 1968: Synopsis of a putatively phylogenetic classification of the flowering plants. Aliso 6, 57–66.Google Scholar
  31. Wagenitz, G., 1975: Blütenreduktion als ein zentrales Problem der Angiospermen-Systematik. Bot. Jb. Syst. 96, 448–470.Google Scholar
  32. Walker, J. W., and Doyle, J. A., 1975: The bases of angiosperm phylogeny: palynology. Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 62, 664–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H.-D. Behnke
    • 1
  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Zellenlehre der Universität HeidelbergHeidelberg 1Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations