Morphological and Biological Basis for the Classification of Brain Tumors

With a Comment on the WHO-Classification 1979
  • F. Gullotta
Part of the Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery book series (NEUROSURGERY, volume 8)


The ever more extensive application of special methods of investigation (electron microscopy, tissue culture, immunohistochemistry etc.) has enormously increased our knowledge of brain tumors in recent years. There is today hardly a clinic or an institute which is not working on a specific morphological, chemical or immuno-histological problem of brain tumors. The main objective of all these investigations should be the exploration of the biological behavior of the tumors in order to provide the clinician with worthwhile pointers to the future course of the disease.


Giant Cell Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Malignant Glioma Pilocytic Astrocytoma Human Brain Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bailey, P., Cushing, H., 1926: Classification of the tumours of the glioma group on a histogenetic basis with a correlated study of prognosis. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  2. Cushing, H. —, Eisenhardt, L., 1928: Angioblastic meningiomas. Arch. path. 6, 953–990.Google Scholar
  3. Bignami, A., Dahl, D., 1974: Astrocyte-specific protein and radial glia in the cerebral cortex of nowborn rat. Nature 252, 55–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Dahl, D. — 1977: Specificity of the glial fibrillary acidic protein for astroglia. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 25, 466–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. —, Eng, L. F., Dahl, D., Uyeda, C. T.. 1972: Localization of the glial fibrillary acidic protein in astrocytes by immunofluorescence. Brain Res. 43, 429–435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bland, J. O. W., Russell, D. S., 1938: Histologic types of meningiomata and comparison of their behaviour in tissue culture with that of certain normal tissue. J. Path. Bact. 47, 291–309.Google Scholar
  7. Bock, E., 1978: Nervous system specific proteins. J. Neurochem. 30, 7–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Böker, D.K., 1978: Zur Immunofluoreszenz menschlicher Hirntumoren. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 41, 363–371.Google Scholar
  9. —, 1980: Über zellvermittelte Immunreaktionen bei menschlichen Hirntumoren. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 23, 229–234.Google Scholar
  10. —, Entzian, W., Gullotta, F., 1979: Immunoelectrophoresis in the diagnosis of neuro-ectodermal and mesodermal intracranial tumours, especially those of the posterior fossa. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 50, 55–60.Google Scholar
  11. Brett, M., Weiler, R. O., 1978: Intracellular serum proteins in cerebral gliomas and metastatic tumours: an immunoperoxydase study. Neuropath. appl. Neurobiol. 4, 263–272.Google Scholar
  12. Bronzini, E., 1978: Il sarcoma mostrocellulare dell’encefalo. Studio in vitro. Pathologica (Genova) 70, 79–88.Google Scholar
  13. — 1979: Value of tissue culture on the diagnosis of intracranial tumors (abstract). Path. Res. Pract. 165, 36.Google Scholar
  14. Brooks, W. H., Caldwell, H. D., Mortara, R. H., 1974: Immune response in patients with glioma. Surg. Neurol. 2, 419–423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. —, Markesbery, W. R., Gupta, G. D., Roszman, T. L., 1978: Relationship of lymphocyte invasion and survival of brain tumor patients. Ann. Neurol. 4, 219–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Buckley, R. C., 1929: Tissue culture studies of the glioblastoma multiforme. Amer. J. Path. 5, 467–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. —, Eisenhardt, L., 1929: Study of a meningioma in supravital preparations, tissue culture and paraffin sections. Amer. J. Path. 5, 659–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bucy, P. C., Gustafson, W. A., 1939: Structure, nature and classification of cerebellar astrocytomas. Amer. J. Cancer 35, 327–353.Google Scholar
  19. Burger, P. C., Vollmer, R. T., 1980: Histologie factors of prognostic significance in the glioblastoma multiforme. Cancer 46, 1179–1186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Canti, R. G., Bland, J. O. W., Russell, D. S., 1953: Tissue culture of gliomata. Ass. Res. nerv. ment. Dis. Proc. 16, 1–24.Google Scholar
  21. Cappricci, E., Gullotta, F.: Morphologic and pathogenetic considerations on cerebral tumours of children. J. Neurosurg. Sci. (Milano), in press.Google Scholar
  22. Casentini, L., Gullotta, F., Möhrer, U., 1981: Clinical and morphological investigations on ependymomas and their tissue cultures. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 24, 51–56.Google Scholar
  23. Cervos Navarro, J., 1967: Zur Feinstruktur endotheliomatöser Meningiome des Menschen. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 8, 141–148.Google Scholar
  24. —, Matakas, F., Lazaro, M., 1968: Das Bauprinzip der Neurinome. Ein Beitrag zur Histogenlese der Nerventumoren. Virchows Arch. Abt. A. Path. Anat. 345, 276–291.Google Scholar
  25. Coakham, H. B., Kornblith, P. L., 1979: The humoral immune response of patients to their gliomas. Acta neurochir. (Wien) Suppl. 28, 475–479.Google Scholar
  26. Collins, V. P., Forsby, N., Brunk, U. T., Westermark, B.. 1977: The surface morphology of cultured human glia and glioma cells. A SEM and time-lapse study of different cell densities. Cytobiology 16, 52–62.Google Scholar
  27. Costero, I., Pomerat, C.M., 1955: Standard cellular morphology of gliomas in vitro as compared with explanted normal brain cells. Excerpta med., Sect. 8, 821.Google Scholar
  28. Cravioto, H., 1969: The ultrastructure of acoustic nerve tumours. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 12, 116–140.Google Scholar
  29. De Armond, S. J., Eng, L. F., Rubinstein, L. J., 1980: The application of glial fibrillary acidic (GFA) protein immunohistochemistry in neurooncology. Path. Res. Pract. 168, 374–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Deck, J. H. N., Eng, L. F., Bigbee, J., Woodcock, S. M., 1978: The role of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the diagnosis of central nervous system tumours. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 42, 183–190.Google Scholar
  31. De Tribolet, N., Martin-Achard, A., Louis, J. A., 1979: Circulating immune complexes in patients with gliomas. Acta neurochir. (Wien), Suppl. 28, 473–474.Google Scholar
  32. Duffy, P. E., Graf, L., Rapport, M. M., 1977: Identification of glial fibrillary acidic protein by the immunoperoxidase method in human brain tumors. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 36, 645–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Graf, L. —, Huang, Y.-Y., Rapport, M. M., 1979: Glial fibrillary acidic protein in ependymomas and other brain tumors. J. Neurol. Sci. 40, 133–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ebhardt, G., 1979: Die Ultrastruktur der Tumoren der astrocytären Reihe. Habilitationsschrift, Berlin.Google Scholar
  35. Eng, L. F., Vanderhaeghen, J. J., Bignami, A., Gerstl, B., 1971: An acidic protein isolated from fibrous astrocytes. Brain Res. 28, 351–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Escalona Zapata, J., Diez Nau, M. D., 1978: The nature of macrophages (foam cells) in neurinomas. Tissue culture study. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 44, 71–75.Google Scholar
  37. Diez Nau, M. D. —, 1981: The astrocytic nature of glioblastoma demonstrated by tissue culture. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 53, 155–160.Google Scholar
  38. Fliedner, E., Entzian, W., 1972: Über ein metastasierendes Gliosarkom. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 26, 165–171.Google Scholar
  39. Fogh, J., 1975: Human tumor cells in vitro. New York-London: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  40. Franke, W. W., Schmid, E., Osborn, M., Weber, K., 1978: Different intermediate-sized filaments distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 5034–5038.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gazso, L., Slowik, F., Pásztor, E., 1979: Optic nerve gliomas. II Cytological characteristics. Observations on cell and tissue cultures. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 48, 177–190.Google Scholar
  42. Gazso, L., Afra, D., Müller, W., 1978: Supratentorial recurrences of gliomas. Tissue culture studies with astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 44, 135–139.Google Scholar
  43. Gerosa, M., Amadori, G., Semenzato, C., Raumer, R., Cisotto, P., Pezzuto, A., Gasparotto, G., Carteri, A.. 1979: Immunobiology of paediatric intracranial tumours. A preliminary report. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 50, 49–54.Google Scholar
  44. Gonzalez Campora, R., Haynes, L. W., Weller, R. O., 1978: Scanning electron microscopy of malignant gliomas. A comparative study of glioma cells in smear preparations and in tissue culture. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 41, 217–221.Google Scholar
  45. Gullotta, F., 1964: Zur in vitro-Diagnostik gliös-mesenchymaler Mischgeschwülste. Dtsch. Z. Nervenheilk. 186, 323–335.Google Scholar
  46. —, 1965: La genesi formale delle fibre di Rosenthal. Acta neurol. (Napoli) 20, 704–711.Google Scholar
  47. —, 1967: Das sogenannte Medulloblastom. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  48. —, 1979: Morphological structure and biological behaviour of medulloblastoma in relation to age. In “Multidisciplinary aspects of brain tumor therapy” (Paoletti-Walker-Butti-Knerich, eds.), Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  49. —, 1980: Bemerkungen zur Chemotherapie maligner Hirntumoren. Dtsch. med. Wschr. 105, 973–975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. —, Bettag, W., 1967: Zur Frage der längeren Überlebenszeit bei Glioblastomen. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 16, 122–128.Google Scholar
  51. —, Wüllenweber, R., 1968: Zur Frage der malignen Entartung bei Meningeom und Meningeom-Rezidiv. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 18, 15–27.Google Scholar
  52. Wüllenweber, R. —, 1969: Meningiomi angioblastici ed emangiopericitomi meningei. Ricerche in situ ed in vitro. Acta neurol. (Napoli) 24, 581–592.Google Scholar
  53. —, Meyer-Lindenberg, J., 1970: Das Mikrogliom als ortsspezifische mesenchymale Hirngeschwulst. Arch. Psych. Nervenkr. 213, 66–77.Google Scholar
  54. —, Kersting, G.. 1971: Il contributo della coltura in vitro allo studio dei tumori cerebrali. Pathologica (Genova) 63, 207–214.Google Scholar
  55. —, Fliedner, E., 1972: Spongioblastomas, astrocytomas and Rosenthal fibers. Ultrastructural, tissue culture and enzyme histochemical investigations. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 22, 68–78.Google Scholar
  56. —, Kersting, G., 1972: The ultrastructure of medulloblastomas in tissue culture. Virchows Arch., Abt. A, Path. Anat. 356, 111–118.Google Scholar
  57. —, Fliedner, E., Wüllenweber, R., Orf., G., 1973: Tissue culture, electron microscopic and enzyme histochemical investigations on a sympathetic ganglioneuroblastoma. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 24, 107–116.Google Scholar
  58. —, Kersting, G., Wüllenweber, R., 1973: Recurrences of gliomas. A comparative clinical and morphological study with a note on the histological grading of astrocytomas. Modern Aspects of Neurosurgery, Vol. 3. Excerpta Medica (Amsterdam), Intern. Congr. Ser. Nr. 287, 116–121.Google Scholar
  59. —, Entzian, W., 1975: Klinische und morphologische Betrachtungen über das “Medullo-epitheliom”. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 18, 193–198.Google Scholar
  60. —, de Melo, A. S., 1979: Das Karzinom des Plexus chorioideus. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 22, 1–9.Google Scholar
  61. —, Kost, H. G., 1980: In vitro-studies of so called medulloblastomas. Pathologica (Genova) 72, 27–34.Google Scholar
  62. —, Casentini, L., Neumann, J., 1980: Giant cell gliomas of temporal lobe. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 54, 25–31.Google Scholar
  63. —, Neumann, J., 1980: Medulloblastome und cerebelläre Sarkome. Eine histologisch-katamnestische Untersuchung. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 23, 35–40.Google Scholar
  64. Haglid, K., Karlsson, C. A., Stavrou, D., 1973: An immunological study of human brain tumors concerning the brain specific proteins S 100 and 14-3-2. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 24, 187–196.Google Scholar
  65. Hayakawa, T., Morimoto, K., Ushio, Y., Mori, T., Yoshimine, T., Myoga, A., Mogami, H., 1980: Levels of astroprotein (an astrocyte-specific cerebroprotein) in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with brain tumors. An attempt at immunochemical diagnosis of gliomas. J. Neurosurg. 52, 229–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Haynes, L. W., Weiler, R. O., 1978a: The effects of cytochalasin B and colchicine on cell motility and ultrastructure in primary cultures of malignant gliomas. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 44, 21–30.Google Scholar
  67. Weiler, R. O. — 1978b: Induction of some features of glial differentiation in primary cultures of human gliomas by treatment with dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Brit. J. exp. Path. 59, 259–276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Henschen, F., 1955: Tumoren des Zentralnervensystems und seiner Hüllen. In: Handbuch der spez. pathologischen Anatomie, Vol. 13/III. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  69. Hirano, A., 1978: Some contributions of electron microscopy to the diagnosis of brain tumors. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 43, 119–128.Google Scholar
  70. Hirsch, J. F., Renier, D., Czernichow, P., Benveniste, L., Pierre-Kahn, A., 1979: Medulloblastoma in childhood, survival and functional results. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 48, 1–15.Google Scholar
  71. Hitchcock, M. H., Hollingshead, A. C., Chretien, P., Rizzoli, H. V., 1977: Soluble membrane antigens of brain tumors. I. Controlled testing for cell-mediated immune responses in a long surviving glioblastoma multiforme patient. Cancer 40, 660–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Houthoff, H. J., Poppema, S., Ebels, E. J., Elema, J. D., 1978: Intracranial malignant lymphomas. A morphologic and immunocytologic study of twenty cases. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 44, 203–210.Google Scholar
  73. Jacque, C. M., Vinner, C., Kujas, M., Raoul, M., Racadot, J., Baumann, N. A., 1978: Determination of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in human brain tumors. J. neurol. Sci. 35, 147–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. —, Kujas, M., Poreau, A., Raoul, M., Collier, P., Racadot, J., Baumann, N.. 1979: GFA and S 100 protein levels as an index for malignancy in human gliomas and neurinomas. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 62, 479–483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Jänisch, W., Güthert, H., Schreiber, D., 1976: Pathologie der Tumoren des Zentralnervensystems. Jena: G. Fischer.Google Scholar
  76. Jellinger, K., 1973: Primary intracranial germ cell tumors. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 25, 291–306.Google Scholar
  77. —, 1978a: Pathology of brain tumors with relation to prognosis. Zbl. Neurochirurgie 39, 285–300.Google Scholar
  78. —, 1978b: Glioblastoma multiforme: Morphology and biology. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 42, 5–32.Google Scholar
  79. Kepes, J. J., Rubinstein, L. J., Eng, L. F.. 1979: Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma: a distinctive meningocerebral glioma of young subjects with relatively favorable prognosis. A study of 12 cases. Cancer 44, 1839–1852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Kernohan, J. W., Mabon, R. F., Svien, H. J., Adson, A. W., 1949: A simplified classification of the gliomas. Proc. Mayo Clin. 24, 71–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. —, Uihlein, A., 1962: Sarcomas of the brain. Springfield, Ill.: Ch. C Thomas.Google Scholar
  82. Kersting, G., 1961: Die Gewebszüchtung menschlicher Hirngeschwülste. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  83. —, 1968: Tissue culture of human gliomas. Progr. Neurolog. Surg., Vol. 2. Basel-New York: Karger.Google Scholar
  84. —, 1973: Tissue culture of recurrent gliomas. Modern aspects of neurosurgery, Vol. 3. Excerpta Medica (Amsterdam), Intern. Congr. Ser. Nr. 287, 122–124.Google Scholar
  85. Kornblith, P. L., 1978: Role of tissue culture in prediction of malignancy. Clin. Neurosurg. 25, 346–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. —, Szypko, P. E., 1978: Variations in response of human brain tumors to BCNU in vitro. J. Neurosurg. 48, 580–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. —, Quindlen, E. A., Pollock, L. A., Coakham, H. B., 1979: Humoral immunology of brain tumors. In: Multidisciplinary aspects of brain tumor therapy (Paoletti-Walker-Butti-Knerich, eds.). Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  88. Kredel, F. E., 1928: Tissue culture of intracranial tumours with a note on the meningiomas. Amer. J. Path. 4, 337–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kreutzberg, G. W., Langer, E., Minauf, M., 1965: Beitrag zur Enzymhistochemie und Gewebekultur des Ganglioneuroms. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 4, 392–401.Google Scholar
  90. —, Minauf, M., Gullotta, F.. 1965: Enzyme histochemistry of human brain tumours and their tissue cultures with special reference to the oxidoreductase in the glioblastoma multiforme. Histochemie 6, 8–16.Google Scholar
  91. Kumar, P., 1979: The biology of human brain tumors. Acta neurochir. (Wien), 50, 7–34.Google Scholar
  92. Lach, B., Weinrauder, H., 1978: Glia-specific antigen in the intracranial tumours. Immunofluorescence study. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 41, 9–15.Google Scholar
  93. Lapras, C., 1979: Experience with direct surgical approach in 52 tumours of the pineal region. In: Multidisciplinary aspects of brain tumor therapy (Paoletti-Walker-Butti-Knerich, eds.). Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  94. Liss, L., 1969: Glial and parenchymal neoplasms in tissue culture. In: Neuroectodermal tumours of the central and peripheral nervous system (Scharenberg, K., ed.). Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  95. Lumsden, C. E., 1963: Tissue culture in relation to tumours of the nervous system. In: Pathology of tumours of the nervous system (Russell and Rubinstein, eds.). London: E. Arnold.Google Scholar
  96. Maunoury, R., Vedrenne, C., Constans, J. P., 1975: Infiltrations lymphocytaires dans les gliomes humaines. Neuro-Chirurgie 21, 213–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. —, Delpech, B., Vidard, M. N., Vedrenne, C., Constans, J. P., Hillerreau, J., 1977: Localisation de la protéine gliofibrillaire (GFAP) par immunocytochimie dans les tumeurs cérébrales humaines. Etude histologique et en culture in vitro. Neuro-Chirurgie 23, 173–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. —, Courdi, A., Vedrenne, C., Constans, J. P.. 1978: Localisation immunocytochimique de la protéine gliofibrillaire dans les hétérogreffes de cultures de gliomes humaines. Neuro-Chirurgie 24, 221–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Müller, W., Afra, D., Schröder, R., 1977: Supratentorial recurrences of gliomas. Morphological studies in relation to time intervals with astrocytomas. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 37, 75–91.Google Scholar
  100. Murray, M. R., 1942: Comparative data on tissue cultures of acoustic neurilemmomas and meningiomas. J. Neuropath. exp. Neurol. 1, 123.Google Scholar
  101. Neumann, J., 1980: Zur Typisierung der Oligodendrogliome Grad I bis III in der Gewebekultur. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 23, 143–146.Google Scholar
  102. —, Kimpel, I., Gullotta, F., 1978: Das Oligodendrogliom. Klinischer Verlauf in bezug zum histologischen Grading. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 21, 35–42.Google Scholar
  103. Ostertag, B., 1936: Einteilung und Charakteristik der Hirngewächse. Jena: G. Fischer.Google Scholar
  104. —, 1941: Pathologie der raumfordernden Prozesse des Schädelinnenraumes. In: Spezielle Chirurgie der Gehirnkrankheiten (Krause, ed.), Vol. 3. Stuttgart: F. Enke.Google Scholar
  105. Palma, L., Di Lorenzo, N., Guidetti, B., 1978: Lymphocytic infiltrates in primary glioblastomas and recidivous gliomas. Incidence, fate, and relevance to prognosis in 228 operated cases. J. Neurosurg. 49, 854–861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Paoletti, P., Walker, M. D., Butti, G., Knerich, R. (eds.), 1979: Multidisciplinary aspects of brain tumor therapy. Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  107. Philipps, J. P., Sujatanond, M., Martuza, R. L., Quindlen, E. A., Wood, W. C., Kornblith, P. L., Dohan, F. C., Jr., 1976: Cytotoxic antibodies in preoperative glioma patients: a diagnostic assay. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 35, 43–52.Google Scholar
  108. —, Darling, J. L., Thomas, D. G. T., 1979: Evidence of humoral and cell-mediated immunity in glioma patients: possible influence of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Acta neurochir. (Wien), Suppl. 28, 471–472.Google Scholar
  109. Polak, M., 1966: Blastomas del Sistema Nervioso Central y Periferico. Buenos Aires: Lopez Libreros.Google Scholar
  110. Ridley, A., Cavanagh, J. B., 1971: Lymphocytic infiltrations in gliomas: evidence of possible host resistance. Brain 94, 117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Ringertz, N., 1950: Grading of gliomas. Acta path. microbiol. scand. 27, 51–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rio Hortega, P. del, 1932: Estructura y sistematizacion de los gliomas y paragliomas. Arch. Espan. Oncol. (Madrid) 2, 411–677.Google Scholar
  113. Roussy, G., Oberling, Ch.. 1931: Atlas du Cancer. Paris: Alcan.Google Scholar
  114. Rubinstein, L. J., 1972: Tumors of the central nervous system. Washington: Armed Forces Inst. of Path.Google Scholar
  115. Russell, D. S., Rubinstein, L., 1977: Pathology of tumors of the nervous system, 4th edit. London: E. Arnold.Google Scholar
  116. Saez, R. J., Campbell, R. J., Laws, E. R., Jr., 1977: Chemotherapeutic trials on human malignant astrocytomas in organ culture. J. Neurosurg. 46, 320–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Safdari, H., Hochberg, F. H., Richardson, E. P., Jr., 1979: Histological correlations with survival in malignant gliomas. Acta neurochir. (Wien), Suppl. 28, 485–488.Google Scholar
  118. Schiffer, D., 1979: Problems of brain tumor classification. In: Multidisciplinary aspects of brain tumor therapy (Paoletti-Walker-Butti-Knerich, eds.). Amsterdam-New York-Oxford: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  119. —, Fabiani, A., 1970: Patologia dei tumori cerebrali. Roma: II Pensiero Scientifico.Google Scholar
  120. Fabiani, A. —, 1972: Contribution of histochemistry to knowledge of brain-tumor metabolism. In: The experimental biology of brain tumors (Kirsch-Grossi Paoletti-Paoletti, eds.), pp. 209–239. Springfield, Ill.: Ch. C Thomas.Google Scholar
  121. —, Croveri, G., Pautasso, C., 1974: Frequenza e significato degli infiltrati linfoplasmocellulari nei gliomi umani. Tumori (Milano) 60, 177–184.Google Scholar
  122. —, Cavicchioli, D., Giordana, M. T., Palmucci, L., Piazza, A., 1979: Analysis of some factors effecting survival in malignant gliomas. Tumori (Milano) 65, 119–125.Google Scholar
  123. —, Giordana, M. T., Soffietti, R., Tarenzi, L., Bertolotto, A., 1980: On the nature of the so-called monstrocellular sarcoma of the brain. Neurosurgery 6, 391–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Schmidek, H. H., 1977: Pineal tumours. New York-Paris-Barcelona-Stilano: Masson.Google Scholar
  125. Schröder, R., Bonis, G., Müller, W., Vorreith, M., 1968a: Statistische Beiträge zum Grading der Gliome. I. Glioblastom-Anamnese. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 18, 43–56.Google Scholar
  126. —, 1968b: II. Glioblastom — Katamnese und Erkrankungsalter. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 18, 186–200.Google Scholar
  127. —, Müller, W., Bonis, G., Vorreith, M., 1970: Statistische Beiträge zum Grading der Gliome. III. Astrozytome und Oligodendrogliome. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 23, 1–29.Google Scholar
  128. Schubert, P., Kreutzberg, G. W., 1967: Enzymhistochemie menschlicher Hirntumoren und ihrer Gewebekultur. II. Oxydoreductasen in Ependymomen mit quantitativen Befunden. Histochemie 9, 367–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Spigolon, G., Gullotta, F., 1961: La patologia dei gliomi encefalici (tumori neuroectodermici). Bologna: Cappelli.Google Scholar
  130. Stefanko, S. Z., Talerman, A., Mackay, W. M., Vuzevski, V. D., 1979: Infundibular germinoma. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 50, 71–78.Google Scholar
  131. Stochdorph, O., 1955: Die Gewebsbilder der Hirngewächse und ihre Ordnung. Veröff. a. d. morph. Path., Heft 60. Stuttgart: Fischer.Google Scholar
  132. —, 1979: How to handle brain tumor classifications. Advances in Neurosurgery 7, 381–384.Google Scholar
  133. Takeuchi, K., Barnard, R. O., 1976: Perivascular lymphocytic cuffing in astrocytomas. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 35, 265–271.Google Scholar
  134. —, Hoshino, K., 1977: Statistical analysis of factors affecting survival after glioblastoma multiforme. Acta neurochir. (Wien) 37, 57–73.Google Scholar
  135. Tani, E., 1976: The membrane characteristics of human brain tumors as revealed by freeze-fracture technique. In: Progress in neuropathology (Zimmermann, ed.), Vol. 3, pp. 129–172. New York-London: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  136. —, Nakano, M., Itagaki, T., Fukumori, T., 1978: Cell membrane structure of human giant-celled glioblastoma. Acta neuropath. (Berlin) 41, 61–65.Google Scholar
  137. Toga, M., 1976: Tumeurs du systlème nerveux. Ultrastructure. Marseille: Diffusion Générale de Librairie.Google Scholar
  138. Troost, T. B., Martinez, J., Abel, L. A., Heros, R. C., 1980: Upbeat nystagmus and internuclear ophthalmoplegia with brainstem glioma. Arch. Neurol. 37, 453–456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Trouillas, P., 1973: Immunologie et immunothérapie des tumeurs cérébrales. État actuel. Revue neurol. (Paris) 128, 23–38.Google Scholar
  140. Uyeda, C. T., Eng, L. F., Bignami, A., 1972: Immunological study of the glial fibrillary acidic protein. Brain Res. 37, 81–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Van der Meulen, J. D. M., Houthoff, H. J., Ebels, E. J., 1978: Glial fibrillary acidic protein in human gliomas. Neuropath. appl. Neurobiol. 4, 177–190.Google Scholar
  142. Vuia, O., 1980: Embryonic carcinosarcoma (mixed tumor) of the pineal gland. Neurochirurgia (Stuttgart) 23, 47–54.Google Scholar
  143. Wüllenweber, R., Kuhlendahl, H., Miltz, H., 1973: Astrocytomas of the cerebral hemispheres. A review on 1,500 cases. Modern aspects of neurosurgery, Vol. 3. Excerpta Medica (Amsterdam), Intern. Congr. Ser. No. 287, 100–107.Google Scholar
  144. Young, H. F., Sakalas, R., Kaplan, A. M.. 1976: Inhibition of cell-mediated immunity in patients with brain tumors. Surg. Neurol. 5, 19–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Zipmermann, H. M., Lennert, K., 1975: Concluding remarks in “Malignant lymphomas of the nervous system”. Acta neuropath. (Berlin), Suppl. VI, 301.Google Scholar
  146. Zülch, K. J., 1956: Biologie und Pathologie der Hirngeschwülste. In: Handbuch der Neurochirurgie, Vol. 3. Berlin-Göttingen-Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  147. —, 1971: Atlas of brain tumors. Berlin-Heidelberg-New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  148. —, (ed.), 1979: Histological typing of tumours of the central nervous system. World Health Organization. Intern. Histol. Class. of Tumours, No. 21. Geneva 1979.Google Scholar
  149. —, Mennel, H. D., 1974: The biology of brain tumours. In: Handbook of clin. neurology (Vinken and Bruyn, eds.), Vol. 16/1, pp. 1–55.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag/Wien 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Gullotta
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für NeuropathologieUniversität BonnFederal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations